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SIX MONTHS AMONG INDIANS, 

WOLVES m OTHER WILD flN WLS, 

IN THE FORESTS OF ALLEGAN COUNTY, MICH., 

IN THE WINTER OF 1839 AND 1840. 



INTERE3TINa STORIES OF FOREST UFB. 



THE EXPLOITS OF TECUMSEH AMD OTHER 
CHIEFS. THEIR CRUELTY TO CAPTIVES. 



How TECUMSEH WAS KILLED AND WHO KILLED HIM 



TRUE INDIAN STORIES OF THE WAR OF 1812-13. 



B-Z" 3D-a.ISITJS-IB^<30©K:.. 




NILES MIRROR OFFICE, NILES, MICH. 

ISSS. 



irtav \9\i 



X- 



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'Ti-IF NEW YORK. 

K:. Liu LIBRARY; 



255892 



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'^DAnON*. 

" L. 



Entered accordinjr te Act of Congress, 

February 18, 1889, by 

DARIUS B. COOK, OF NILES. MICH., 

In the Office of the Librarian ot Congress, at Washington, P. C. 



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PREFACE. 

The Author of this work 
never contemplated its publica- 
tion until within a short time. 
Glancing at his diaries and see- 
ing many events which history 
dojBS not contain, he deemed it a 
^ttty wl?ri^b ^^^KJ Dasn owes to 
hfe felkyw citizeiia and country to 
contribute all possible to past events, especially of 
the savage trifej^ ^l^a \ised to, roat^i through our for- 
ests, and who are rapidly passing away and in a few 
years will only be kuo^jrn as handed down by the 
historians. No effort is K^de in any thing but a 
plain statement of occurrences which took place. 
The interviews happened to be with the older ones 
who were actually in the war of 1812 and fought 
with the British, and been themselves engaged in 
many bloody contests and taken many scalps. With- 
out further preface we trust this book will be received 
as adding a little contribution to the history of the 
past. DARIUS B. COOK. 

Niles, Mich., 1889. 



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TO 
JAMES RHODES, 
the faithful 
and jolly companion, whose 
heart beat for the welfare of the whole 
human race, who was a steadfast friend, who 
knew no fear, and was ever ready to sac- 
rifice himself for one he admired— to 
him, wherever he may be, 
this little history is 
respectfully 
dedicated. 



'\-^ 






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CHAPTER L 

A Winter in the Forests of Allegan County — 1839- 
40. — Wolves, Indians and Game Plenty. 

IT was the second week in No- 
vember, 1889, when ill health caus- 
ed the wriiber to abaqdon a pleasant 
yet laborious position in the oflBce 
of the "Kalamazoo Gazette," pub- 
lished at Kalamazoo, Mich., Henry 
Gilbert, editor and proprietor, for a 
life with the Indians, 

** How are you this morning?" 
said Dr. Starkweather, as he enter- 
ed the office one morning and found 
us pale and coughing over the office 

stove. 

"No better, doctor; I passed a sleepless night, and 
you can see I am about ready to surrender." 
^ "Not yet," said the doctor. "You want fresh air 
and exercise. Go live with the Indians, sleep in 
their wigwams on a bed of leaves, hunt in the for- 
ests, live as they live, and the chances are you will 




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I SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

recover. Pure air, rarified by tlie trees in the forest, 
will do any man good." 

**Yes, but I could not endure such exposure." 

**Go join the Rev. Mr. Selkirk, an Indian mis- 
sionary near Allegan, and make your home in the 
wigwams, and yon will be sure to live or die in six 
weeks. You cannot live and sleep in this oflBce." 

The doctor was in earnest. It seemed a great un- 
dertaking for a young man, but preparations were 
hurriedly made. A companion seemed necessary for 
such an expedition, and one was soon found fond of 
ad venture, named James Rhodes. He was young, full 
of nerve, energy, life and courage. Eight large wolf 
traps, v/ith spikes, which had to be set with levers, 
were procured, rifles and ammunition, abed, blankets 
and necessary provisions, cooking utensils, etc., for a 
winter's campaign in the forests among the wolves 
and Indians. 

The closing week in November, 1839, when every 
thing was in readiness, the two youngj men took 
leave of Mr. Gilbert, Volney Haskell, Orrin Case 
and all connected with the office, who gathered 
around us, laughing at our load, consisting of half 
of a dead horse for wolf bait, and a general outfit, 
on a sled, drawn by a yoke of oxen. We crossed the 
bridge spanning the Kalamazoo river, took the road 
to Gull Prairie, where we passed a night with Mr. 
and Mrs. Phinehas Cook, parents of the writer. 
Here our outfit was completed to perfection, and 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 3 

early in the morning we proceeded on our journey, 
passing our second night at Yankee Springs, a hotel 
kept by Yankee Lewis. 

From Kalamazoo to Gull Prairie there were but 
two dwellings, and from the prairie to Yankee 
Springs but four, except the rude log houses erected 
by the Baptist missionary. Slater, for his Indian con- 
verts of the Ottawa tribe. Among them was Noon- 
day, chief of the tribe, of whom we shall speak 
hereafter. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis regretted exceedingly our rest 
would be disturbed by music and dancing, but such 
was our fate, for twenty couple kept the music going 
until daylight. The hotel was a good one for its 
day, and all travelers going to Grand Rapids made 
it a point to stop there. The writer can never forget 
the kind hearted Yankee Lewis and his estimable 
wifd, who treated us so well, and sent us on our way 
with many kind wishes for our success. 

Partaking of an early breakfast we pursued our 
journey for several miles, and ere we reached Rabbit 
river, turned on a blind road, lately blazed, to the 
north. 

Companion Rhodes and the writer here left the 
sled and started ahead of the team on foot, that we 
might be more sure of following the road. The snow 
was getting deep, and deer tracks were abundant and 
fresh. 

'*I wish," said Rhodes, ''I could got a crack at a 



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4 SIX MONTHS WITH THE IXDIANS. 

big buckr "So do I; weM load liim pretty soon/' 
We were just rising a hill, and when we looked 
down from the summit, a big buck jumped up a little 
to our right not four rods off and stood broadside 
looking at us. Our rifles were on our shoulders and 
neither of us thought to shoot. 




THE FIRST SHOT. 

''Why don't you shoot?" said Rhodes. "Shoot 
yourself," said we. At this moment we both shot 
and wondered much to see him leap off. On close 
examination, his ball cut off a bush close to the 
ground within twenty feet of him, and ours went 
into a beech tree fifteen feet high, and the driver of 
the team had all the laugh to himself. 

Onward we moved, on our winding way, until late 

in the afternoon we saw it lighter in the distance, and 
" We knew by the smoke which so jj^racefuUy curled 
**Above the green pines that a cottage was near/' 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. O 

A glistening diamond would not been halt as welcome 
as that smoke, curling up in graceful folds amid the 
forest trees. There was a little opening and a rude 
log hut. Jt was the home of the first settler in that 
wilderness, Nelson Chambers. His nearest neighbor 
was a Mr. Barnes, about three miles, who had a saw 
mill at the head waters of Rabbit river. As we en- 
tered his clearing, both he and his solitary r»ompan- 
ion stood at their door gazing with wonder and 
amazement. They had never been visited by such a 
crowd. After explaining to them our mission, they 
extended the hand of welcome, sucli a welcome, too, 
as only pioneers know how to give to new comers. 
Such accommodations as they had were frep, and we 
passed the night surrounded apparently with a hun- 
dred howling wolves who had got scent of our dead 
horse. We had now to proceed about three-fourths 
of a mile to an old log shingle shanty on land owned 
by a Mr. Seymour, of Allegan. 

Early the next morning, Mr. Chambers piloted us 
to the phice of destination, and there we unloaded 
our cargo. We found a hole in the ground, under an 
old pine bedstead, where we stored our potatoes to 
keep them free from frost, pegs in the logs to hang 
various articles upon. The hut was about twenty 
feet square. Many chinks between logs were out 
which we replaced. There was no chimney, but a 
place in one corner to build a log fire with a large 
opening above for the smoke. Our team left us soon 



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8TX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 




THE OLD LOG CABIX. 

after our first cold dinner in our new home was over. 
The first work was to shovel the snow from the fire- 
place and prepare for a fire. The wolves had made 
t-iis place their resort, as evinced by their tracks and 
hair and horns of deer which were seen in all direc- 
tions. It was near sunset before preparations were 
cornpleted for the night, and the wolves began their 
terrific music, which seemed to rend the air and 
caused us to look well to our fire during the long, 
cold and tedious night. Our horse flesh was placed 
on our cabin roof. Our provisions were stored inside. 
Sleep, there was little. The snuffing and growling 

of hungry wolves until daylight, no pen can describe. 
'Twas if a thousand fiends of hell 
Were sending forth the battle yell. 



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CHAPTER II. 

How to Catch Wolves— One on a Swing — A Visit 

from Adnniram. 

The sunshine in the morning was beautiful. The 
ptentle breeze caused the stately pines to hum sweet 
music. The wolves had been hungry all the long 
night, howling here and there, and amid the din the 
horned owl's tu-whit-tu-whoo! could be heard in all 
directions. Our breakfast consisted of baked pota- 
toes, pork and pancakes, and nothing tasted more 
delicious. Notwithstanding the severe ordeal we had 
passed through, we already began to recover health 
and strength. The bait for wolves on the shanty 
came down and was dragged about three-fourths of a 
mile into a black ash swamp and left by a fallen tree. 
Three traps were set near it. To them a chain was 
attached and a heavy clog to the chain. Visiting 
the traps the next morning, two were gone and one 
was sprung, evidently by a piece of bark falling from 
the log. Not a vestige of the bait was left. Both 
were found. The clogs had caught against little 
trees, and the wolves had wound the chains around 
them .and twisted their feet out^. leaving the balls 
and claws in the traps. 

We supplied bait the next night with the head of 



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8 



SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



a deer and caught others, but they would twist out in 
the same manner. We found it was useless to catch 
thera in this way, for so powerful were they no trap 
we had would hold them. We invented a plan to 

SAVE THEM. 

A huge grape vine ran far up into the limbs of a 
tree, and both of us pulled it down and tied it to the 
roots of a tree with moose bark. We then cut it ofF 
and attached the chain of the trap to the vine, and 
tlie bait near the trap surrounding it in such manner 
that an animal must step over into the trap to get it. 
In this way we saved our first wolf He was caught 
by the fore paw. He leaped and broke the bark, the 
vine sprung up and Mr. wolf was jerked twoVeet 
from the earth. At our appearance he could only 
kick at air and turn his head fiercely. Throwing a 
cord around the vine we could swing him thirty feet 
each way, and in this amusement we participated for 
some time, his feet touching the snow as he come 
down from his long sweep. A bullet through his 
head as he was sweeping up put an end to the sport. 
Our custom after this was to bend down a sapling^ 
tie it to the root of a tree and attach the chain to 
that. This would fly up and keep the wolf dancing 
upon his hind feet. In this way but one ever es- 
caped, but, as will be seen hereafler, he was captured 
Returning to our cabin early ia the afternoon, we 
4bund it necessary to prepare huge logs to keep our 
fire going night and day. At this we spent two da vs. 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 9 

In December a portion of the Pottawatomie tribe 
of Indians encamped a mile from us, east of Rabbit 
river, to hunt and trap, and prepare for making maple 
sugar in the spring. Among them was Adaniram 
Judson,an interpreter,a fine specimen of the tribe. He 
was educated by General Cass, and accompanied him 
in making treaties and to Washington. He was well 
versed in the English as well the Indian language. 
He possessed all the Indian traits and would not 
sleep in a bed. In his travels he would rest on the 
floor on a blanket, rather than a soft bed, being un- 
der the impression he would lose his elasticity and 
strength if he slept on anything soft. In our cabin 
his bed was a deer skin, with a wolf skin for a pil- 
low. He gave us lessons in Indian, which we soon 
learned, finding it simple and easy. He was famed 
for his swiftness, and claimed he could run a mile on 
an Indian trail in four minutes. He prided himself 
on running down deer. Whenever he desired one, 
he took a track, followed it carefully until he started 
him, and then a steady trot, and in a short time 
would run one down and cut hig throat. This has 
been done by many a young Indian buck. He was 
about 35 years old, medium heighth, and was one of 
the proudest Indians of the tribe, and claimed some 
of the blood of Sa ginaw^ the old warrior chief. He 
was our frequent visitor while he remained in the 
forest, which was about six weeks. He would sing 
to us all the Indian songs, practice their dancing and 



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AbdNIKAM JUDSON. 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. H 

war whoops, and make the wilderness echo far with 
his Indian yells. He was full of life and story. 

On one occasion, retirng about midnight, he sud- 
denly exclaimed, "Do you wish to hear the Indian 
story of the burning of Buffalo, in the war of 1812?" 
"Oh, yes, Adoniram, we do." 
Lifting himself up and resting on both elbows, he 
remarked, "Go with me to the wigwam of Sa ginaw 
to-morrow, take with you some fire water, get the 
chief a little drunk, and he will give you an unwrit- 
ten history of the march there and the scenes at 
Buffalo. It was about three miles to his wigwam on 
the trail. This was agreed to, and we all fell asleep 
amid the hooting of owls and howling of wolves. 



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CHAPTER III. 

Visit to Saginaw — Scenes on the Way — Capture and 
Burning of Buffalo — Promises of the British — 
Women and Children Captives — The Fierce Blood 
of the Chief Boiling^ etc 

At break of day, Rhodes, who was a good cook, 
announced, "Breakfast is ready I" It consisted of 
coffee, roa»ted potatoes, venison and pancakes. This 
over, each with a rifle started on our tramp, Adani- 
ram taking the lead. No trail was necessary for him; 
a glance at the trees told him his course, and we were 
not long in reaching the tent of the old chief. We 
found him sitting quietly in his wigwam, smoking a 
pipe which was once the property of Tecumseh, the 
brave. The pipe was presented to him by a British 
officer, for his skill and bravery in battle, the base of 
which was gold, mounted with pure silver. The 
stem was about 18 inches long, made with the quills 
of the wild turkey, supported by fine hickory splints, 
and wound with the sinews of deer. After bis death, 
Saginaw, a chief and a great warrior, who was with 
Tecumseh when he fell, took his pipe, and it was his 
constant companion until his death. The writer saw 
it in the wigwam of Saginaw , and gave a pound of 
tobacco to the old chief for a smoke in it. It is un- 
doubtedly still in existence among the tribe. 

After the usual salutations, we were presented to 
the scarred chief, who arose, extended his hand and 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 13 

received us with all the formalities which chiefs pos- 
sess. We were seated upon bear skins which he had 
killed, the s^kulls of which were exhibited on poles 
which surrounded his wigwam. Saginaw was the 
first and only bald-headed Indian we had ever seen 
or heard of. There was a little hair on the back 
part of his head and extended from ear to ear. His 
furrowed brow, his wrinkled face and trembling 
hand placed him at about 80 years of age. He stood 
six feet high and as straight as the arrows in his 
wigwam, and he walked with youthful elasticity- 
Many questions were asked relative to his life and his 
battles, but he would only answer with a "UghT' Fi- 
nally we exclaimed, " Saginaw he buck-a-taw (want) 
whiskey?" "On-in-ta" (yes). Pulling out a small 
flask, he exclaimed, "ne-shin-che-mo-ke-mon!" 
(good whiteman). Turning a little into a bear's skull 
he drank it with a relish and called tor more. A little 
more was given, and he soon began to sing and 
dance. Adaniram saw he was all right and he began 
to question him in Indian tongue and interpret 
as he proceeded. He had been in many a fight. He 
was with the British at the battle of the Thames, 
saw Tecumseh fall by a shot from a pistol drawn 
from a saddle by an oflBcer whose horse had fallen 
over a log. He assisted Noonday in carrying his 
dead body from the field. He was not scalped as 
reported in some history. His blood was upon his 
garments. He was carried far back in the retreat 



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SAGINAW. 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



15 



into his tent, and a great pow-wow was held over his 
dead body. After his fall, the Indians felt like 
fighting no more. "Tecumseh kin-a-poo! Tecumseh 
kin-a-poo!" ( Tecumseh is killed) sounded all along 
the line. The tomahawk of Tecumseh fell into the 
hands of Noonday ; his pipe was secured by Sag- 
inawj his war cap was torn to pieces in a strife 
among the tribe for it. 




DEATH OFTEOUM^ELIL (Battle of THETHAMEsi 



He gave a description of the march through Can- 
ada; how they climbed trees and shot American 
scouts. He said British oflBcers had promised them all 
the women and children they could get if they would 
capture Buffalo, anu they did as they promised to a 
great extent, and they had over one hundred women 



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16 



SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



and children surrounded ready for torture. The 
women were separated from the children by a file of 
Indians, cruel, and thirsting for the order for tor- 
ture. The work of throwing children into the burning 
buildings commenced. Saginaw would take the feet 
and Sunagun the hands and swing — sirring — swing, 
and over they went into the flames, and to see 
them writhe and die was glory enough for them. 
As he described the scene — the screaming and agony 
of women and mothers — he leaped high and gave the 
terrific war whoop and Indian yell at Buffalo, and 
exhibited all the ferocity he possessed at that time. 
He rushed to his muhkuk (a box made of bark), 
seized his scalping knife, and such demonstrations 
did he make with his hatchet and scalping knife that 




THROWING CHILDREN INTO THE FLAMES. 

we Stepped outside and cocked our rifies. Adaniram 
could not restrain him, and his three squaws rushed 



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SI jc-Moi^Tfis WITH the;indtai^8. 17 

in, seiz^, hiw. !«:nd-fomedihimito tt'Seat 00 Iii6 beiair 
skjna. 

T^t ctuildrea were all • to be thrown into the flames, 
and the women were to be led away captives, to be 
dfepQsediof and torttired at their pleasure; Three 
had-beaii, thrown in .when^ two British offibers rode 
up, with drawnw swords, and ordered a halt, just* in' 
tipie.tOifiaveia fourth. Ida feiv moments a regiment * 
of Britishi regulars marehed in rand reS(;n6d the 
wijmen and cbildrep*/ This exasperated the Indikiis 
tO/the highest. pitchy and inthe heigh th of their in- 
digD&tion an; arrow »flew' from the^anks and pierOed' 
the sword arm of one of the officers. It waf^^ a ef ki- ' 
cal moment. Saginaw saw there was no such thing 
as restraining his braves (he did not wish to) and they 




INDIAN COUNCIL AT BUFFALO. 

were upon the point of dashing through the ranks 
and murdering and scalping the women and children 



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18 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

when a number of British cavalry came dashing in 
among them and Saginaw, commanded a halt. This 
undoubtedly saved the women and children, and a 
conflict with the legulars. 

An Indian council was at once called. Sunagun 
said^ *'me no more fight for the British ; me go to the 
Americans." ^a)ftnaw said, **me do so too." Noo n:: 
day said, **me go to mine wigwam." Several exciting 
speeches were made, when a number of the British 
cavalry rode in with pipes, tobacco, beads and Indian 
trinkets of all descriptions, and after a long parley 
it was agreed the matter should end and they smoked 
the pipe of peace. 



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CHAPTER IV. 

Saginaw* B Cruelty — His Smuggling Away of a Wo- 
'man and a €Hrl — T/ie Woman a Target for Young 
Bucks — The Girl raised with great care'' and Mar- 
ries Saginaw* s Son and has Children. 
Saginaw was a brave and famous warrior, but like all 

his race, was cruel and delighted in torture. At Bnf- 




CAtTL'Ut! OF AUCt. aSU EfFIL 

faio he smuggled away one woman, Alice, and a girl, 
Effie, the latter being about 12 years of age, b?«ntiful 
black hair and eyes, round features, and chet^ks as 



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20 



SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



"rosy «s the moon." The woman was used for a 
target for the young bucks to practice on. They 
would stretch her arms out and tie each to a tree, 
pinion her feet and stand off a short distance and 
shoot at an arm, a finger, the breast, ear, a mocca- 




YOUNG BUCKS PRACl'IGING. 



«in. on top of her head,, with blunt arrows, and sHe 
was bruised in a most shocking manner. One ey^ 
was accidentally shot out and she suffered greatly, 
but only to the delight of her tormentors. At last 
the other eye was shot out and she was then pi^hjed 
with arrows and left in the forest to be devoured by 
wolves. 

The young girl, EfGe, was watched with great care. 
The squaws became jealous of her and would have 
killed her had it not been for Saginaw who kept her 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 21 

giiarifed for a long time. She finally married one of 
Sagiriaw^s sons and had five children axid died at 
child-birth and there was great mourning at the 
time of her death. 

The effects of fire-water passing oft to a great ex- 
tent,^aginaw sit down on his bearskin rob^,.hi3 
squaws, three in number, beside him^and all sang a 
gong of peace and joy. As we were about tp take our 
leave, he springs up and demands more fire-water. 
Adaniram grasps him, causing him to pause, while 
his squaws seize him and he surrenders, exclaiming 
**caw-in-ne-shin che-rao-ke-men !" (you are very 
bad white men.) Determined not to leave him 
in a rage, a long parley ensued. We supplied him 
v^ith tobacco and he mellowed down into pleasant 
songs. His squaws prepared a feast and we all par- 
took heartily of muskrat soup served in bear skulls 
with Wooden spoons. It was our first taste of that 
kind of soup, but it was well seasoned, mixed with 
pounded corn and very palatable. 

The old chief became very loving ere we departed, 
about 2 p. m. and presented each of us with a pair of 
elegant moccasins which were tanned by his daugh- 
ters, Beaded and interwoven with porcupine quills 
with great taste. 

On our return to what we called "hunters lodge,'* 
a strange animal was discovered at a distance in the 
crotch of a tree. We paused for a critical examina- 
tion. We were scarcely within shooting distance 

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22 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

and crept carefully along from tree to tree to get 
within range of our rifles. . Both were to fire at the 
word, the same moment. No sooner had we got 
position than the animal leaped from one tree to an- 
other and then to the ground and flew swiftly away. 
What it was we could not determine. 

During our absence some person had stolen the 
last ham from our lodge, and from the track, one being 
longer than another, owing to a deformity, we knew 
it was Indian Su-na-gun, but it was too late for pur- 
suit that day. While discussing our supper* pota- 
toes and pork, we heard what we supposed was the 
screaming of a woman, about half a mile distant, in 
great agony. It was fearfully dark and the wind 
whistled through the pines and the snow was falling 
fast. The wolves and the owls were hushed. This 
awful screaming of a woman in agony aroused our 
sympathies. No time was to be lost, and we left our 
supper and lit our torches, shouldered our rifles and 
we»-e off* with a rush. Onward we dashed in direc- 
tion of the sound, but still we seemed to get no 
nearer to it, in fact it seemed farther and farther off, 
and we returned by our nearest neighbor, Mr. Cham- 
bers, who was listening to the same screams.^ On 
learning of our expedition, he laughed heartily and 
informed us it was a panther, and it had been in 
that vicinity several weeks. He had seen him twice. 
"Ah," says Rhodes, "that is what we were trying to 
get a shot at to-day, but he leaped from tree to tree, 
and then tp the ground and dashed away." 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 28 

"Yes, yes," says Chambers, **that was him; he is 
almost red, and is a large and powerful one." "But," 
says we, "it is dangerous to be in the forests, is it 
not, where they are?" "No," said Chambers, "tliey 
flee before a man, but I think it lucky you did not 
get a shot. If you had wounded him he would un- 
doubtedly have made for you. Last spring there were 
two here, but the Indians killed one, and this one 
comes around occasionally perhaps to look up his 
mate." "Just so. Come Rhodes, let us to our lodge." 
The sound was finally lost in the distance, and the 
music of the wolves and owls was heard again. As 
we neared our lodge a little to the right two golden 
spots were seen glaring at our brilliant torch lights. 

"Take this torch," said Rhodes, and the next mo- 
ment whang went his rifle and down fell a big buck 
with a bullet in his head. 

"What shall we do with him ?" was the next ques- 
tion. Leave him half an hour and the wolves would 
have him. To drag him to the lodge forty rods in the 
snow was a hard job for two already worn out. Bttt 
there was no time to be lost; our torches were getting 
low and we had but one in reserve. "Let us try it," 
says Rhodes, strapping his rifle on his baqk Arjd 
seizing one horn, and we the other. It was a two hun- 
dred pound buck or more, but we got him into camp 
and packed him away for the night. It was now ten 
o'clock, and, finishing our supper, we were in the 
hands of morpheus until broad day light. 

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I 



CHAPTER V. 

Wolves Stole our Pork — Bringing an Indian Thief 

to Omfesnon. 

It fell to oar lot to stir up the hoge log fire ia the 
comer and get the breakfast. Passing out to oar 
pine dug out for pork, what was our surprise to find 
the wolves had pawed off the shingle blocks ^which 
covered it and taken every piece of pork— a two., 
hundred hog. They had followed the trail of the deer 
up to the door, making no noise, and robbed us of 
what we had outside. Here was the buck and^ we , 
still had meat^ and off came the hide, and in a fe^,.^ 
moments we were roasting pieces on sticks, Indian , 
fashion, and made out our usual breakfast. The 
quarters were stuck upon poles outside ; the balaqce,, 
carried to the marsh for wolves. 

One event seemed to follow another in quick 
succession. On going to the spring about three rodp, 
distant, 8u-na-gun was discovered coming on his^. 
trail to his hunting ground, when we dropped oui:, 
pail and rushed back, seized our rifle, dashed out 
and exclaimed **nene kin-a-poo 8u-na-gun !" (that is , 
I will kill you.) He dodged behind a tree,, but ^ 
Rhodes made a dash for his rear and caused him to 
fall upon his knees and cry for mercy. We ordered, 
him into our lodge with his rifle breech first, and he 
quickly obeyed. We pointed out to him where the 
ham hung and took away the bark we had placed. 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 25 

to cover his track, and demandocl he place his foot in 
it. This he declined to do and Rhodes cocked his 
rifle and he promptly obeyed ; it was the short 
foot and a perfect fit. He owned up that he was the 
thief and begojed for time to go to Yankee Springji 
for another. This was granted, and the next eve- 
ning he came witii one on his pony. This settled 
all stealing from that quarter and made them friends 
through fear. After this they thought we possessed 
great power and could tell who ot them did wrong 
and they were more kind to us. 

This over, we went to the swamp with the remains 
of the buck and found a monster wolf dancing on his 
hind legs, being jerked up by a spring pole. A Wvjlf 
when trapped, can play well the penitent and sneak, 
but their teeth cut like plates of steel. We cast lots 
to see who should put a bullet through his head and 
it fell to Khodes and he was not long in doing it. 
He was a monster. His carcass was dragged far 
aiiray from the traps and placed in the crotch of a 
tree, for it was believed by Indians that wolves would 
never go near a dead one. 

This over, we spent the balance of that day in 
preparing wood and for a trip each way, one up and 
one down the river, for our traps extended over three 
miles each way. The writer had a brother, Daniel, 
attending Barnes' mill, about three miles up the riv- 
ar whose estimable wife, Maria, always favored us 
with a loaf of bread. 



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CHAPTER VI. 

Sport with Owls— A Wolf Trapped— Two Shot— A 
call from Pe-make-wan, a Brother of Adaniram— 
A Good Day's Wm^k. 

IT was a clear, cold morn- 
ing in December. Break- 
fast was over; the huge 
log fire was burning brisk- 
ly ly as we sat smoking our 
|t pipes and discussing whe- 
ther we would go to our 
■distanttraps orsfay around 
lU our cabin. The owls dur- 
ing the night had disturbed ns exceedingly. It seem- 
ed as if all in the forest had gathered with the wolves 
to give us one grand serenade. Tiiey were attracted 
by the vepison which hung upon poles outside. In 
fact the owls had feasted upon it during the night, 
and the tracks of wolves were numerous around the 
lodge. We finally resolved to make war upon the 
owls and for two hours only. Both could imitate 
them to perfection. We started out in opposite di- 
rections and for some time we could shoot them with- 
out calling, being very numerous. When the call 
began they came from all directions. As fast as we 
could load and fire they would fall. We were not 

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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 27 

over eighty rods apart, judging from rifle reports, 
and we ^ere striving Jo see who would bring in thQ 
greatest nqnciber. We met promptly on time, Rhodes 
having. twenty-two. to our eighteen, tie could heat 
us in loading and firing. , ^ 

It was exeeediiiffly cold and we concluded to spend 
I he day and pick off the thick matted feathers from 
the birds, make each a pillow, for as yet our cases 
were only stuffed with fine hemlock boughs. There 
seemed to be over two bushels of them, but on dry- 
ing them a few days there were not enough for two 
pillows but by mixing them with the boughs they were 
all any one could desire. 

At noon our picking was finished and our appe- 
tites were appeased by our usual home dinner. Our 
dishes were washed according to our custom by turn- 
ing them bottom side up. We had just shouldered 
our rifles to visit our wolf traps when in came Pe- 
make-wan.- He loosened his belt giving us to under- 
stand he was very hungry. We had plenty of cook- 
ed venison and cold roasted potatoes left and he clean- 
ed it out in quick time and started with us for the 
traps. The snow was over a foot in depth. When 
we reached there we found one wolf dancing on the 
end of a pole, caught by the fore paw. He was soon 
dispatched, the trap re-set and onr owls were left for 
bait. The wolf was left in a tree and we proceeded to 
a few traps on the bank of the river, about thirty-five 
rods distant. Reaching the river, brush were heard 



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28 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

to crack on the opposite si^ie. **Ke-wob-era/' ex- 
claimed Pe-raake-wan, that is "you see?" In sl mo- 
ment a deer leaped into the river almost opposite us, 
and dashed up the bank not more than thirty yards 
from us. "Hold I hold ! !" said Rhodes, don't shoot 
the deer!" No sooner had he spoken than two im- 
mense timber wolves dashed into the stream in the 
same place and were quickly over. As they showed 
their heads above the bank, one of them fell by the 
deadly aim of Rhodes' rifle. The other received a 
bullet from our rifle, but made a leap for us. The 
second leap his back broke in the centre^ the bullet 
cutting it half in two. The Indian discharged his 
rifle, cutting through the ear close into the head. 
With a broken back he struggled desperately for us. 
A bullet in his head from our revolver, put an end 
to liim before a rifle could be loaded. These were 
soon skinned and their carcasses thrown into the river. 
On reaching our cabin, near evening, we found our 
only near neighbor, Mr. Chambers, there with a sup- 
per all ready, roast venison, etc., with delicious wheat 
bread, which Mrs. C. fiequently furnished, and per- 
haps we four did not enjoy a hearty meal and a 
pleasant evening. Mr. Chambers left for his home 
about 9 o'clock, but soon returned for a torch to pro- 
tect himself from wolves. 



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CHAPTER VII. 

How Wolves Hcek their Prey — The Rifle Failed us — 
j1 Fierce Attack looked for — Piece of Hide ^ etc. 

THE writer went to the spring at early dawn and 
discovered, near it, a solitary wolf track, fresh, in a 
light snow which had fallen during the night. It 
was agreed we would pursue that track after break- 
fast, especially as it went the course we desired to go 
to the river, Rhodes to go to the traps below, the 
writer above and beyond Barnes' mill. We had not 
followed over thirty rods when this single track 
branchea into seven and on a run. We concluded 
we had started a pack of wolves and ft was useless to 
pursue, but we soon discovered they had started a 
deer. Three went to the right, thre*^ to the left and 
one followed on the track of the deer. Hunters un- 
derstand that a deer, when startled, will leap off per- 
haps twenty rods and stop and look behind them. 
Rhodes took the tracks of those lo the right, we to 
the left. He soon called to us to come. He stood 
where they had grabbed their game and drawn blood, 
but by a wonderful leap over a fallen tree top had 
escaped only to be caught by the three on the left 
and nothing was left but blood and hair. In nu- 
merous instances the same discoveries were made, 
which insured a hungry pack of wolves a feast, and 



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30 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

they were far more destructive to deer than hunters. 

Reaching the river, it was agreed we should both 
be at the lodge at dusk. It was an ^tablished rule 
that the one who reached there first should fire a sig- 
nal gun to ' <• answered by the one in the forest. 
This was to be repeated every few minutes until ten 
o'clock in the evening. A shot by one out after 
dark was a signal to depart for him with a torch. 

Thus we parted in opposite directions. Our small 
trapj^, which had not been visited for three days, 
contained muskrat and mink and ere we had gone 
a mile, an otter, and we found it necessary to pause 
and take off the hides. This detained us so we could 
not go the rounds and reach the lodge that evening, 
and were compelled to spend the night with a Mr. 
Hooker, residing near Barries' mill, who moved there 
from Gull Prairie, Kalamazoo county. Here we 
were beyond the sound of the signal gun. We made 
our supper out of cold roasted potatoes and dried 
venison we had carried in our pocket His was a log 
cabin with a stick chimney on the outside. A terri- 
ble wind storm, accompanied with a light snow con- 
tinued all night, and the thermometer must have 
been below zero, yet the snow melted and the roof 
leaked in various places. Our coffee in the morning 
was made of hemlock boughs and was excellent. 
Mr. Hooker was poor but hospitable and gave us the 
best he had, well cooked corn coon and pancakes. 

Breakfast over, our journey up the river was not 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 31 

yet completed. The wind was blowing powerfully, 
but we pushed along steadily on our trail and came 
to a thicket of hazel bushes. Here rabbits had been 
playing very thick and we concluded we would have 
one for Mr. Hooker on our return. Glancing cau- 
tiously in every direction to get a shot at one, to our 
surprise, we saw a 

MONSTROUS GRAY WOLF, 

not three rods distant, hunting for rabbits Directly 
in our front was a large log which, we used for a trail 
through the thicket and upon this the wolf placed 
his fore paws, and was smelling for something on the 
o»ther side. He was a monster. The big ruffle on 
his throat told us he was an old settler. Placing our 
rifle by a large tree where we stood, we took delibe- 
rate aim back of his chops to sever the artery. The 
cap burst, but the rifle failed to go off*. Quick as 
thought, the wolf came directly at us with wonderful 
ferocity. In a moment we drew our huge hunting 
knife from our belt and as he came dovvn by the tree 
we made a desperate plunge at him, taking com- 
' pletely out of his back a piece of hide .as large as the 
palm of the hand. The wolf made a square angle 
and swept through the hazel brush frorn us at the 
top of his speed, followed by a shot from our revol- 
ver. The tree hid us from his view, and he was 
frightened by the: explosion of the cap, the wind 
blowing powerfully, he ran accidentally toward us. 
It was a trying moment. He. was a powerful animal 



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32 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIAJJ8. 

terrible in battle, and it was a plunge for life. One 
closing of his jaws wouhl have crushed a bone in- 
stantly, but with our knife we felt quite sure of vic- 
tory. Retracing our steps to Mr. Hooker's, we found 
the. water fVom the roof had dripped into our rifle 
during the night and wet the pc^wder. 

Before completing our journey up the river we 
began to think of our companion who expected us 
back, as agreed, and we hastened our speed home- 
ward on our back track. Coming within sight of 
where we had skinned our game we saw Rhodes ex- 
amining closely for our rifle in the snow, or clothing, 
for there was plenty of blood and a pack of wolves 
had evidently quarreled for the carcasses. We hail- 
ed him at a distance and he threw his hunting cap 
high. It was a happy meeting. Our furs testified 
our excuse for not returning. 

Turning our course toward the Indian encamp- 
ment, the fii'st one we met was Gosa, whose niece had 
disgraced him, and over which he and his squaw 
mourned, for virtue among the tribe was a treasure. 
A step outside was disgraceful and was only settled 
by marriage or large gifts. Entering his wigwam, 
he pointed out to us his niece and the shame which 
was strapped to her back. All squaws bore their 
papooses on their backs and all had to do all the 
haid labor, prepare all the wood, dress all the game, 
tan the hidfs, while the Indians hunt and bring in 
the game. His niece, Lydia, was subject to terrible 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 33 

abuse and she appealed to us for protection. We 
L*alled Gosa from his wigwam and told him the great 
spirit would not let him go to the happy hunting 
grounds when he died if he did not cease such pun- 
ishment and treat her lovingly. No one can tell the 
joy of that erring girl when he pledged us he would 
cease his punishments. She wept and threw herself 
at our feet expressing, in Indian dialect, great grati- 
tude. Scars from whips, made from sinews of deer, 
were all over her person. He claimed he hated to 
do it, but it was the command of the great spirit. 
We soon pursuaded him that such laws were con- 
demned by white men and the great spirit. 

Lydia was so well pleased that she brought us 
rauskrat to eat and gave each a pair of moccasins. 
Her uncle had never had such teachings and there 
was nothing too good for us. He afterwards would 
drive deer to us on their runway and gave us the use 
of his ponies. Arriving at the lodge near sunset, we 
found every thing had been stolen. Not a potato 
or a particle of any thing eatable, except the venison 
on the poles, was left, and that made our supper. 



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CHAPTER VIII. 
Tke Pursuit — The Surrender — The Trick on Rhodes 

— More Indians — A Settlement and Feast. 

AT early dawa we took the trail and moved as 
rapidly as the deep snow would permit. We were 
armed with our rifles, our revolvers and hunting 
knives. We tramped over four miles before we dis- 
covered the smoke of their wigwams and we paused 
to rest and form plans for a surprise. 

Rhodes was a short, thick set young man, with 
long dark brown hair, heavy whiskers all over his 
face, hazel eyes piercing from beneath shaggy brows, 
and dressed in his hunting garb and armed, he look- 
ed like a wild devil let loose in the forest. His tiger 
was up, for it was the second time we had been 
robbed and it would not hurt his conscience to shoot 
an Indian now any more than it would a wolf. He 
could talk the language better than the writer and 
he was chosen to do it. 

All arranged, we dashed in upon them, but were 
seen by many, who rushed to their wigwams. They 
knew our mission well and skulked from our view. 
Rhodes called for the chief among them and he came 
out; he then demanded the surrender of the thieves. 
(It was a new band, one we had never seen and did 
not know of their'arrival.) Tlie chief was a young, 



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SIX MONTHS WTTH THE INDIANS. 35 

■fierce buck, slender, and seemed anxious to assist us, 
but evidently was not. Re went with us from one 
wigwam to another and we found a blanket and a 
piece of deer skin which we recognized. Rhodes 
seized the blanl^et and deriianded a surrender of all 
they possessed and assured them he had a band who 
would march in upon them. He commanded one 
and another to stand up and they promptly obeyed. 
The young chief, or the leader of the band, ordered 
that all engaged in the robbery, to come forth. They 
did so and there were seven, and the measures in our 
game sacks of their feet told t'^uly of four of them^ 
They claimed we were not settlers, but intruders upon 
their hunting and trapping grounds, but they want- 
ed no war; they would do any thing to settle itr 
Rhodes, mellowing down, said he, too, desired peace. 
He came in there to join them, to live with them. 
He loved the good Indian and would defend them. 
At least thirty Indians, squaws and children gather- 
ed around. The squaws brought out some of our 
bam and the otter, deer and wolfskins they had sto- 
len. One of the turbulent ones, on seeing this, cried 
out, "Caw-in-ne-shin squaw !" meaning you are a 
very mean squaw. He was silenced by the young 
chief, but he could haidly restrain his rage. We 
took out a pencil and a memorandum book and ask- 
ed his name with a view to take him to Allegan for 
punishment. This immediately brought him to terms 
and he gave his name as San-go- far. It was finally 



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36 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

agreed that the party should return whalt they had 
left of the stolen goods and go to Yankee Springs 
and bring in more. Early the next raorning four of 
them appeared on their ponies, loaded with furs of 
all varieties and deposited them on our bed. This 
was to show their sincerity, but it increased our cares, 
for it was well known we daily left our lodge alone, 
without any way to prevent the entrance of any one. 
If the door was barred it was an easy matter to climb 
up on the logs outside and down thenrt inaide, and it 
was suspected a portion of the band might skulk 
around and when we left, enter and take the furs and 
charge us with the theft. We therefore cast lots to 
see who should remain in the lodge that day. It 
fell to Capt. Rhodes, as we afterwards called him, 
to remain and for us to go to the wolf traps. It was 
an exceedingly hard punishment for him to be thus 
confined, but he endured it, spending some of his 
time in preparing "jerked venisori." 

On nearing our wolf traps we saw the back of an 
immense animal curve up behind the large log where 
one was set. We paused for a survey. Moving cau- 
tiously around the butt of the log we were discovered 
and the monster made a fearful leap for us, but he 
was fast in the trap, the chain of which was attached 
to a small tree, and although he struggled with great 
power to reach us he could not. A bullet finished 
him in few seconds. What it was we could not tell. 
Its large, round head and paws, sharp and immense 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 37 

claws showed it was of the eat species. It proved to 
be a large lynx. We strung him up to a tree while we 
proceeded to our other traps down the river but found 
little of importance. Returning, a solitary wolf had 
been attracted by the blood, but passed on. It was 
a hard drag through the snow to the lodge, but we 
reached there about 4 p. m. and found the Captain in * 
a profound sleep, such as weary hunters enjoy. We 
quietly slipped off the furs and secreted them outside 
in the dug out. Still, he was in a deep sleep with 
his rifle by his side. This, too, was secreted. The 
lynx was then carefully placed by his side. We 
climbed upon the roof where we could look down 
unseen. It was a sight never to be forgotten. His 
face was towards the logs and at his back lay the 
monster animal. Fearing he might sleep until sun- 
down we set up an Indian yell that aroused him. 
He grabbed for his rifle and struck against the lynx. 
He leaped up in an instant, looked for his rifle, but 
contented himself with his revolvers. He satisfied 
himself the animal was dead and he rolled him off 
the bed. The furs and his rifle were gone. Some 
one had stolen them during his sleep and he went 
searching for a trail. While doing this we slipped 
down inside the cabin. It was some time before he 
returned and found us preparing supper. We ques- 
tioned him closely relative to what had been going 
on. He admitted having fallen asleep, that the furs 
and rifle were stolen. He could give no information 

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38 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

relative to the mysterious appearance of the animal, 
but "it must have been the work of Indians." On 
searching, every thing was soon found and he was 
forcibly reminded that he was a very careless watch- 
man. 

We were sipping tea, borrowed from Chambers, 
when we heard the Indians coming with a yell which 
drowned the voice of old wolf, Jim, as we called him, 
who always howled at late twilight and was answer- 
ed by numerous wolves in various places. They rode 
up to our door and dismounted, bringing in provis- 
ions, tobacco, pipes, far more than they had stolen. 
We were prepared for them as much as possible. 
Mrs. Chambers had supplied us with bread. Rab- 
bits and venison were in readiness on a table made 
of split pine, supported by shingle blocks. Their 
ponies were turned loose, but would scarcely leave 
the tree tops near us. There was a jolly time at this 
feast. San-go-far was the principal talker. He was 
full of story of his adventures and often would ex- 
press his sorrow at what he had done to us. But it 
was all settled and we all sat before the blazing logs 
smoking the pipe of peace until midnight, when ail 
fell asleep with their furs around them. A yell in 
the morning brousjht up their ponies and they left 
before breakfast. One hearty meal will answer an 
Indian two or three days. When he eats he lets 
loose his belt and fills himself as much^as possible, 
and as he grows hungry he tightens it. 



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CHAPTLR IX. 

Visit to Selkirk Mission — Pursued by Wolves on our 

Return and Treed — The Rescue. 

Opening the door in the morning, a fine buck 
stood about ten rods distant, browsing from a tree 
top lately fallen. He was facing us. "Now," says 
the Captain, "strike the curl in front." It was a 
splendid mark, and not an Indian in the forest could 
beat either of us. Standing inside the door we made 
the shot and the deer fell in his tracks with an ex- 
act centre shot. Really, there was no object in kill- 
ing one for their meat was worth nothing to us and 
only two cents a pound in any of the villages and it 
cost all it was worth to get it there. We got the In- 
dians to tan the hides. 

**Captain, I am going to the Selkirk mission today," 
said we ; "will be back in due season this evening." 
An Indian pilot had tarried with us over night and 
off we started. It was seven or eight miles ; we 
struck a trail in about a mile. We reached the 
mission about 11 a. m. and were received by the 
Reverend with the greatest hospitality 

This Mr. Selkirk was a former, and we believe, the 
first Episcopal Minister stationed at Niles, Mich. 
He had in his charge about one hundred and forty 
Indians^ old and young, whom he was educating and 

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40 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

they seemed in a prosperous condition. He treated 
us to a sumptuous dinner and two hours were spent 
pleasantly. A number of the young men in his 
charge, as well as the old, took great interest, and it 
was his delight to teach them. 

We left for our lodge about 2 p. m., leaving our 
guide at the mission. We had no trouble in follow- 
ing our trail back until within a mile of camp when 
another track interfered and for some distance fol- 
lowed ours. When we arrived to where ours was 
first struck it was hard to tell which led to our lodge. 
By this we were led off and darkness began to cast a 
deep shadow and old Jim began to howl. The sig- 
nal gun was fired, answerpd by ours. It was getting 
dark and we began fo think of a fire. Another gun 
convinced us that the Captain was coming to our 
rescue. Gun answered gun as the wolves gathered 
around. In the deep snow our progress was slow. 
We heard the growl of a wolf in our rear. It was 
dark and gloomy. We grasped the limb of a small 
beech tree and leaped into its branches and not too 
soon, for a big wolf was near us. We let off our rifle 
as near as possible in the darkness at the wolf, which 
was answered by the Captain with a yell not forty 
rods off. Soon a light was seen in the distance and 
as it drew near, hurrah answered hurrah with great 
cheer. During: this time wolves were all around but 
could not be seen. On the appearance of the torch- 
es they fled, always fearing a fire in the night. 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



41 



Tills endeared the Captain to us more than ever, but 
he did nothing more than had been done to him on a 
previous occasion on a bitter cold night when he was 
treed by them half a mile out. There was not a night 
the wolves did not follow us to our lodge as seen by 
their tracks in the morni ng. 

At early dawn a little son of Mr. Chambers came 
to our lodge for us to come at once to his house and 
we did so. We mistrusted what he wanted for he 
had a wolf j:)en built of logs a few rods from his house. 
It was about fifteen feet square ; the top sloped so 
an animal could walk up to a hole in the centre, un- 
der and inside of which was a dead carcass. Two 
wolves had jumped in and once in they could not get 
out. Here they were, one a monster, the other me- 
dium size. Occasionally they would make a despe- 
rate leap for the hole above and strike their fore paws 
against the logs and drop back. We stirred them up 
with poles which they would break in a moment. 
After amusing ourselves with driving them arouud 
the pen as long as we desired, Mr. Chambers took our 
rifles and dispatched them. This was in February, 
the month when deer congregate, and on our return 
to the lodge not less than thirty were seen in a drove. 
It was a beautiful sight, so many deer, with their 
white flags up, dashing through the forest. The 
Captain gave one of them a shot and brought him 
down and gave him to our benevolent friend, Mr. 
Chambers. 



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42 



SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



Nothing of interest occurred for several days, and 
we had jolly times with the Indians, shooting at marks 
with rifles and arrows. It was great spo: t for the 
young bucks to shoot and beat us with arrows. They 
would hit a cent fifty feet away nearly every shot. 




They finally brought out a young squaw who could 
beat all of ihem. She never sighted over the arrow, 
but would fix her eye on the mark and let the arrow 
fly without a miss. 

The Indian way of making maple sugar is to cut 
into the tree ivith a hatchet and drive a sheet iron 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



43 



spout into the tree under the hack. The sap was 
caught in wooden troughs. They would boil musk- 
rat, coon, dog, or whatever they wished to eat in it. 
When boiled down to syrup they would strain it 
through deer's hair, then make it into sugar and sell 
it to the whites. Straining it through hair would 
make the syrup look quite clear and improve the 
appearance of the sugar very much. Gosa made 
large quantities of it. 




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CHAPTER X. 

A Squaw up a Tree — He7* Screams are Heard — The 
Rescue — A Hard Time — It Proves to be one of Sag- 
inaw*s Wives — Oreat R^oicing — A Fea^t. 
It was a still, coJd night, the moon and the stars 
shone bright, all nature was bushed and naught but 
the wolves and owls seemed to disturb the solemn 
silence ; yet, sounds from afar seemed to echo through 
the forest as we went out to roll in a log to replenish 
our fire. *'Hark 1" said the Captain, as we tipped 
the log up on the end and were about to drop it into 
the cabin, "what sound is that?" " It is the same 
old panther, far away," said I, and down went the 
log ajul we rolled it on the fire. 

It was our turn to prepare supper and the kettle 
was on the coals, the venison was on sticks before the 
fire, the potatoes were in the ashes. He steps out to 
listen and returns saying — *' it does not sound like a 
panther; it seems, too, in the same place all the 
time." Again I listen — "No — hark again !" It is a 
terrible moan, far distant, and amid howling wolves. 
We lost no time in preparing for as hasty a pace as 
possible. Our rifles were in order, our torches were 
ablaze. Through the deep snow we made our way, 
not with a swift and tiresome tread, but slow and 
steady gait. Nearer and nearer each step brought 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



45 



US to the dismal sound. First one would take the 
lead to break the path then the other. When with- 
in about twenty rods we paused to get a distinct 
sound. It was indescribable, a hoarse, mournful, 




deep, guttural sound, like one in the last agonies of 
despair, amid devouring wolves. 

"Hold my torch," said the Captain, ''while I strap 
my rifle to my back." It was but the work of a mo- 



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46 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

iiient. "Give me your torch and step forward with 
your rifle cocked," said he, *' and I, with a torch in 
each hand, will follow close beliind. Look sharp for 
glaring eyes and we'll move swiftly to the spot." 

Soon as the light penetrated to the place, the 
shouts of a squaw were heard, but faintly. We then 
shouted in Indian language at the top of our voi- 
ces **we are coming ! we are coming ! I" The wolves 
fled from before our blazing torches, and she cried 
out, meaning "I am saved I" and faintly expressed 
great gratitude. 

She was about twelve feet high upon the limb of a 
beech tree, cold and stiff; scarcely able to help her- 
self. **Quick ! quick 1 1 take our rifle," and I was at 
her side in a moment, but not being ab^e to untie the 
buckskin belt which bound her to the tree, we took 
cords from our pocket, placed them under her arms, 
threw them over a limb, cut the belt and lethersafe- 
ly down. She could scarcely move, except her arms. 
Strapping our rifles on our backs, each with his torch 
in hand, she threw an arm around each neck and we 
started for the lodge, her feet dragging in the snow. 
It was a t'^rrible task. Her limbs were so benumbed 
with cold she could scarcely move them and we some- 
times carried her a few rods. Fatigued with the toils 
of the day we were not well nerved for this task. 
The wolves were in close pursuit and not infrequent- 
ly did we pause and shoot at their glaring eyes, re- 
flected by the light. The more we compelled her to 

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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 47 

move her limbs the easier it was. After the first half 
mile she was able to render some assistance, wliich 
was a great relief Although she would not weigh 
over one hundred and twenty-five pounds, it seemed 
three hundred. 

At last we reached the lodge and laid her down 
in front of the fire on deer skins and covered with 
the same and wolf skins. She seemed now almost 
insensible. A sack of hot ashes was placed at her 
feet, hot stimulants administered. Every thing was 
done to restore her possible. Circulation returning, 
she fell into a deep sleep from which she did Jiot 
awake until eight o'clock in the morning. Our ven- 
ison and potatoes, which we left by the fire was burnt 
up and we went supperless to bed. 

When she awoke, venison, potatoes and coffee was 
ready and she partook with great relish. Her first 
utterance was an expression of gratitude to us for her 
deliverance from a terrible death. She then inform- 
ed us how she came there. She went the day before 
to the Selkirk mission to visit her sister. There she 
remained over night and left in the afternoon later 
than she supposed. Her sister accompanied her some 
distance and returned. Before she was aware of it 
night was upon her and wolves on her track. She 
knew well her doom. She knew both of us well and 
knew if she could get within hearing distance she 
might be rescued. She ran until she knew wolves 
were close upon her and leaped into the tree where 



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48 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

we found her. Both of us had seen her but she 
would not tell us who she was. She was mediani 
height, rather slim, fine features, with hair and eyes 
black as the raven. One of her toes was a little fro- 
zen. 

Breakfast being over we proposed to accompany 
her to her wigwam. This she begged us not to do. 
She took her departure with tears in her eyes, thank- 
ing us over and over for the kindness she had re- 
ceived. We had determined to rest that day. 

Early the next morning a youns: buck, dressed in 
rich Indian costume, with a rod in his hand, came 
dashing up to our door on a beautiful pony, and 
hailing us exclaimed, in Indian, "Saginaw wishes to 
see both of you early I" and without further expla- 
nation wheeled his pony and galloped away. 

*• Great heavens !" exclaimed the Captain, " that 
was one of Saginaw^ s wives !" "That's so," said I, 
and the old villain has killed two Indians through 
jealousy I'' 

"I do not care to go today," said .the Captain. 
"Wait a day or so until he cools off." After discuss- 
ing the matter for some time, "I'm going," said he. 
"So am I," was the response, but go prepared for the 
worst, and if there is any demonstration we'll fix 
him." 

Our hunting garbs were on in a moment. Our 
revolvers were in our belts loaded. We were both 
young, swift and enduring, and been long enough in 

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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 49 

the forest to know no fear. We moved rapidly and 
it was not long before we saw the smoke of his wig- 
wam and pansed to look well to our rifles. When 
within a short distance, the squaw we had rescued 
came out to meet us and said **8aginaw was good In- 
dian now." We uncocked our rifles and were es- 
corted to his wigwam. He arose from his bearskin 
seat, clasped his arms around each one, laid his head 
upon one, then upon the other's shoulder, and shed 
tears copiously, expressing great gratitude for what 
we had done. It was some time before we were re- 
leased ; then his three wives gathered around and 
gave thanks as did also his noble looking son who 
had married the captive white girl heretofore spoken 
of. Saginaw offered us bearskins, ponies, crosses, 
Indian trinkets, moccasins made by his daughter, 
elegantly adorned with porcupine quills, bead bags 
and many Indian valuables, all of which were refus- 
ed. More than fifty Indians, squaws and children 
gathered around to express their thanks. A few 
squaws a short distance away were preparing a feast. 
We were invited. The old chief marshalled them 
all in a circle, came for us, took the lead, and Indian 
file marched up to the circle which opened and let us 
into the centre, followed by his wives and son, where 
we were seated on benches and partook heartily of 
soup, served in the skulls of bears and eat with wood- 
en spoons. What the soup was made of we knew 
not but afterwards ascertained it was dog. It was 
well seasoned and excellent. This made us famous 
with all the Indians and their love and adoration 
was shown in various ways. 



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CHAPTER XI. 

Saginaw Sick — Turning Doctor — Indian Male of 
Curing Diseases — Sarrtnt Escape of Gosa, 
NOTHING of importanoe passed for a few days. 
We were on exceedingly good terms with the Indi- 
ans. Meeting them in the forest thej-would greet 
us in the most friendly manner. We both felt at 
home in their wigwams and could vie with them in 
eating coon and muskrat soup out of bear or human 
skulls. Getting belated on one of our expeditions 
we found comfortable quarters with them. *On one 
occasion Saginaw was quite ill and he sent a messen- 
ger on a pony, leading another, for us to call and 
nee him. We were well supplied with various kinds 
of medicines which the Indians had heretofore refus- 
ed to touch. Mounting the pony, we left the Cap- 
tain, whose mission was to bring in a deer that day. 
The dintance was about two miles and we soon 
reached there and a dozen Indian boys were ready to 
greet us. One of his squaws received us with joy 
and took charge of the poney. The old chief lay on 
\m bear skins in great pain and had a high fever. 
Fever powders were administered and he soon be- 
enmequier. We tarried over four hours, passing 
our titue with the boys shooting with their>ows and 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE mBIANS. 51 

"arrows. Having prafeH^d' considerable, we sdr;prife-- 
ed by them thrawing our cap into the air and hitting 
it on its descent. -\. [ 

Leaving Baginaw in good condition with plenty of 
medicines, with full directions, he soon recovei:ed. 
This was our first patient and we were the great phy- 
sician of the forest. After this we had our hands 
full. If any thing was the matter, we were needed 
and it became necessary to recommend their own 
remedies, which were first, dig a hole in the ground 
and place a kettle in it half full of water; cqt up a 
lot of hemlock boughs for the water and then put 
in heated stone and create a steam, over which the 
patient is placed and covered with blankets, except- 
ing the head, and thus they would steam them for 
an hour. When taken out they are wrapped in 
blankets and compelled to lay in the wigwam several 
hours before they stir, except to partake of tea made 
of bitter root. This generally answered their pur- 
pose. Still, we occasionally had to act as physician 
to keep peace. 

GosawasMck, and he was very sick, too. He 
had waded the river, set a trap and caught an otter 
for us, and he was the clever Indian. His niece 
brought us a pony and we hastened to see him. Yes, 
•'poor old Gosa," as he was called, was in danger, 
having a high fever, breathing short, and stifiened 
all over, and was near lulig fever. Fever powders 
were administered and he was wrapped in hot wet 



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62 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

blankets, given hot hemlock tea, hot stone to his feet, 
and in two hours he was in a perspiration, and tak- 
ing his bitter root he soon recovered. After this our 
fame spread far and wide among the Indians as the 
"great medicine man.*' 

Not many days after this, we started out one naorn- 
ing after a deer There had been a light snow over 
night and the bushes were loaded. Up the river, on 
the east side, was a thicket of small hemlock. Here 
a deer could always be found and the tracks wete 
plenty and ft*esh. Cautiously moving and peering 
in every direction, expecting every moment to get a 
shot, we saw a movement between the bent boughs, 
not larger than our hand. Quick as thought we took 
deadly aim, the cap burst, but the rifle failed to go 
off. Gojsa lifted himself up ; his porcupine cap, or- 
namented with feathers, was upon his head. It was 
an aim at him, who was our best forest friend. Had 
the rifle gone off he would have been shot through 
the body, and there was something strange about it 
for the next trial it did not fail. Gosa wept like a 
child when he learned how near we came to shooting 
him, and our feelings we cannot describe. He was a 
great favorite with all ; had we killed him we never 
could have convinced the tribe it was by a mistake, 
and we would have been compelled to leave the for- 
est. When it became known, many thought we could 
not be relied upon, that we were a dangerous white 
man, and there was more or less fear of us for a few 

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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



53 



days and until a meeting of Indians was called and 
Gosa explained the whole matter and told what 
friends we were and how much I had done for him. 
SaginaWy too, was at the meeting and he told a plain 
story how he once shot an Indian by a similar mis- 
take, but he did not die. This was entirely satisfac- 
tory and confidence was fully restored. 




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CHAPTER XII. 
A Deer Shot in His Bed— A Pursuit for a Buck— 
Lost in a Swamp — The Value of a Match — A Per- 
ilous Night. 

"Captain, there are fresh deer tracks between here 
and the spring," said I early one morning as we re- 
turned with a pail of water, "and I propose to get 
one before breakfast," seizing our rifle. "Yes, but 
V\\ have breakfast in half an hour or so," said the 
Captain. "I'll be here on tirade, and if you hear me 
shoot come out and help me drag one in," said I» 
jokingly. "Yes, yes," said the Captain laughing. 

Out we went, and in less than thirty rods we saw 
a fine doe lying down, and she was shot dead in her 
bed. But a few steps off a fine buck jumped up, 
and ere we could load was out of reach. By a cau- 
tious pursuit we got in a shot at long range, but 
drew blood freely and followed on, but knowing we 
would be late to breakfast we retraced our steps for 
the doe, and much to our surprise there was nothing 
left but a small piece of skin which we took back for 
a cushion to the shaving horse. The wolves had 
carried it all off. This could not be believed until 
the Captain examined the aground. 

Breakfast being over we resolved to pursue the 
wounded buck. Taking the track, the blood showed 

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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 55 

he had a serious wound, and we had not gone far ere 
he sprang up and dashed off, getting a second, but it 
seems not a fatal shot. Thus we pursued this wound- 
ed buck far off fromour lodge nn til the shadows of 
night began to set in, and we saw thiere was danger 
of not getting to our lodge. The day was cloudy 
and we had no idea how far we were from qur camp. 
Our compass told us which way to steer our course 
to strike Rabbi triver, and we hastened on as speedy 
as possible. But darker and darker it grew. Old Jim 
set up his great bass howl in the same place he al- 
ways did, and we knew we must be a long distance 
off for he was between us and the lodge. If we could 
reach Rabbit river before dark we were safe for we 
knew of an Indian encampment up that river, but 
the distance to it seemed too great. Coming to a 
tamarack swamp we made up our niind our only sal- 
vation was to strike a fire, for the wolves were on 
our track and when darkness tairly set in an attack 
was certain. We gathered a lot of dry tamarack 
poles and kindlings but to our sorrow we could not 
find a match. Every pocket was searched in vain. 
We tried rubbing dry sticks together, but could not 
succeed in getting any thing but sparks. We deter- 
mined to discharge our rifle and load with powder 
and tow, which we had in our game bag, which 
would set the tow on tire. After doing so and taking 
the tow out of the bag a solitary match dropped from 
it into the snow which we seized with the utmost 



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56 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

care. Pieparing well for a fire we lit the match, set 
the tow on fire and the dry bark and sticks were 
soon going, and as darkness fairly set in we had a 
fire which ilhirainated the wilderness for a long dis- 
tance. We listened for the signal gun in vain, we 
were beyond hearing it. Every short time we would 
fire our own gun, but it was useless. The wolves 
surrounded us in large numbers, but the fire was our 
protector. Sometimes when it became a little dim 
they would approach nearer. Their howls and 
growls were terrific. They would often have a fight 
among themselves, and their clear voices would ring 
for miles around. When their eyes were tarned 
towards us they would glisten by the light of the 
fire, and occasionally we would shoot as near as pos- 
sible between them. The noise ot a rifle would still 
them but for a moment when a louder and more ter- 
rific howling would be set up. Thus all the long: 
night we worked to keep up the fire, and dry tama- 
rack near us was getting scarce. To venture out too 
far was certain food for them. On one occasion, one 
wolf more daring than the rest, while we were pro- 
curing a dead tree four or five rods from the fire, 
came so near we heard him snuff*. Turning around 
we saw his glaring eyes not over three rods off: 
Dropping our pole we took good aim at his eyes and 
he fell dead, but we did not know it then. Ke was 
apparently crouched for a spring when we shot. We 
only knew the eyes disappeared. It was a cold and 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 57 

f^lreary night. We had fixed a place to sit down, and 
in a minute we fell asleep and fell off. This awak- 
ened us and we dare not sit down again. A few 
frozen roasted potatoes were found in our pocket, 
which we thawed out and eat, which were refreshing. 
Daylight dawned at last, and as it grew lighter thje 
pack drew off and their noise was hushed. We went 
to see the effect of our shots and found the venture- 
some wolf dead in the snow. Those farther off had 
been hit, as seen by blood, but not fatally. AH 
around and within eight rods and less the snow was 
completely tread down, and here and there blood and 
hair, caused either by their fights or bullets, by bul- 
lets we imagined, for we sent not less than ten in 
their direction. 

It was a night of terror, long and dreary. Almost 
ready to surrender to fatigue we pursued our north- 
ern course slowly and sadly, for even then we began 
to think we must perish alone in the forest. At last 
we struck the river and took new courage. Here 
there was a half beaten Indian trail and our steps 
were quickened. Onward we pressed and at last we 
beheld one of the most beautiful pictures the eye 
could imagine. It was smoke curling up among the 
trees. It was an Indian encampment and we were 
greeted with a hearty welcome. Here were those 
whom we had chastised for robbery. We told them our 
etory, and two young bucks started for the wolf with 
ponies, and in less than an hour he was brought in. 



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58 



SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



They feasted us on their best — boiled muskrat, 
corn bread and potatoes. They brought up their best 
ponies and one strapped the wolf on, took the lead, 
and in an hour we reached our lodge. It was about 
10 a. m. and the Captain had taken our track, but a 
shot from our rifle was answered near a mile ofiP and 
he speedily returned and it was a joyful meeting for 
he never expected to see us alive. We remained in 
camp three days before we recovered sufficiently to 
be out. 




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CHAPTEK XIII. 
^n Expedition after Beaver — Bed on Hemlock 
Boughs— A Chase and Ca/ptare of a Wolf— Ah In- 
dian Killed. 

It was in March. The snow had entirely disap- 
peared in many places. We had jtist completed our 
breakfast when Su-na-gun euddenly entered in quite 
an excited state. "Wtiat now, jSu-na-gun ?" asked 
the Captain. " Nene kin-a-poo ma-quaw !" (I've 
killed a bear.) He wanted us to go and help drag 
him in. . We had heard a gun not far off, but it 
was nothing uncompaon. Quickly we were prepar- 
ed. Not h^lf a mile distant lay bruin, but already 
the wolves had found hi^l, but the^y had not devoured 
him, although he was considerably torn to pieces. 
We soon topk off his hide and hung him up in quar- 
ters oq trees, and the Indian took him as he desired. 
This over, &u-na-gun said, **Me know where there 
be beaver, but me dare not tell white man, Indian 
kill me." He could not be pursuaded to tell trs where 
the beaver dam was only it was on a stream down 
the river that ran in from the east. It was resolved 
to start on a tramp for it the next day and four traps 
were procured, a sheet for a tent, two days rations 
were prepared, consisting of venison and roasted po- 
tatoes. Bright and early we were off in the morning 



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fiO SIX MOXTHS WITH THE DOJIANS. 

for the river, followed down on the east side, strack 
a stream and followed it op a long distance, sought 
another and followed it down. When we struck the 
liver the first day was s|)ent. We sought a large 
fallen tree for a head-board and here we gathered 
hemlock boughs, which were plenty on the banks, 
and made a bed, built a fire with dry logs at our 
feet, propped up the ce-iter of the sheet, fastened 
down the edges, eat our cold supper and crawled un- 
der the sheet. Hemlock boughs make a splendid 
bed and one upon which it is believed no person can 
tjike cold. No one ever slept sounder than we did 
until about 2 o'clock in the morning, when Rhodes 
gave us a nudge and said in a whisper, "listen!'' 
The snuffing of wolves was close to the log at our 
heads. Our fire had nearl}' died out and they ven- 
tured up on the dark side. We sprang out speedily. 
The Captain seized a fire-brand and threw it at them 
and at the same time I let go my rifle. This put 
them to flight in all directions. In a few minuted 
they seemed to have all congregated and such a 
howling was very rare. Replenishing our fire we 
slept soundly the balance of the night. 

At daylight we pursued our journey, following up 
and down streams, but abandoned pursuit the second 
day in time to reach our lodge. Although we had 
traveled a long distance, we were not more than three 
miles from our camp. Taking a direct route we 
soon came to the swamp where we had traps and 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 61 

found one of them gone. The chain was so short 
the wolf had gnawed off the end of the spring pole 
and escaped with only the trap and chain. We hung 
up our baggage on trees and began to (?ircle the 
swamp. The Captain soon started him, and cried out, 
**here he is !*' At the same time came the report of 
his rifle and a cry, "cut across, he has turned up the 
river I" I did so, and when I struck the river and 
cast an eye up towards a bend, the wolf was plainly 
visible ; the descending sun shining upon him, he 
glistened like silver. He was cairying the heavy 
trap by the left fore leg, evidently much fatigued. 
By a short cut the Captain headed us off and gave 
another shot as he crossed the river on a pleeper, the 
last remnant of a bridge built by government sur- 
veyors. I kept up a regular Indian trot, crossed the 
fiver in the s^me place and kept a constant gaia on 
him. The heavy trap was too much for him. His 
tongue hung out and he surrendered and wheeled 
towards us. I paused and so did he. When I ap- 
proached toward him he did the same toward us. 
Being not more than three rods apart, we took a sure 
aim at his throat and he fell, but he lay, with his 
head up. The Captain came up, took a rest, fired 
a* his head, the ball passing over the top of his ears. 
I had approached within a few feet of him when the 
Captain says, "keep back and load up for he will 
come for you when he gets rest." Before I got a 
ball down he stretched out his neck and the blood 



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62 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

burst out a stream, the artery being severed the first 
shot. In a few minutes his hide was off* and he mea- 
sured six feet six inches from the end of his nose to 
the end of his tail. He was a monster, but very 
poor for he was lame, having been in our trap before 
and lost the ball of his foot and nails. It was noW* 
about dark ; the wolves began their music and hav- 
ing no torches we hurried to our lodge and when we 
reached there a pack of wolves were not far behind. 
We will here add that the next morning we visited 
the carcass of the wolf to see if wolves had eaten it, 
but found they had not. It was completely covered 
with honey bees pouring in and out of a beech tree 
near by. This confirmed what we had heard, that 
wolves would not devour each other unless upon the 
point of starvation. 

We were satisfied this was old Jim for his bowl- 
ings were heard no more. 

Relative to the beaver dam, the Indians went there, 
caught two beaver, got into a quarrel and one Indi- 
an was killed. 



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CHAPTER XIV. 
A Bear Killed — A Midnight Alarm — Narrow Es- 

cape from a Shot in the Dark, 

IT was in March ; our venison was getting low ; 
the Captain left us to go to the upper traps and he 
was not expected home that night. About thirty 
rods from the lodge poles had been placed in the 
crotches of trees, forming a scaffold about twenty feet 
high over a deer runway. Thither we went just be- 
fore sunset and took our station on the poles, keep- 
ing a watch both ways. We had not been there long 
before a monster black bear made his appearance. 
It was the first we had seen. He moved along on 
the trrail slowly, looking first one way, then another. 
It is evident he smelt our tracks for when he came 
under us he stopped and in a moment a bullet broke 
through his skull. He whirled around several times 
while we were reloading. It was evident he had his 
death wound, but another shot cut his throat and he 
died in ten minutes. Here was another dilemma. 
He would weigh near three hundred pounds dnd to 
leave him there would be food for the wolves in an 
hour. A large fire was built, we went to the lodge, 
procured torches and went for Mr. Chambers. He 
readily hastened to our assistance and we dragged 



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64 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

him into the lodge amid the terrific tumult of wolves 
and owls. Mr. Chambers returned and we retired 
for the night. 

It was midnight when we were aroused by the 
most unearthly yells ever yet heard in the forest. It 
seemed as if a hundred Indians were screaming and 
very near our lodge. We seized our rifle, mounted 
on the top of our cabin and fired into the midst of 
the tumult, as we had done before to a pack of wolves, 
**Hold on there !'' exclaimed the familiar voice of 
brother Daniel ; "we're coming to make you a call.'^ 
"All right, come in. Are either of you wounded ?" 
**No, but a close call. We knew you were alone and 
we took it into our heads to give you a scare and 
came three miles with torches to do it." "Such a 
move at midnight would have done it once, but you 
know all fear of any thing vanishes after one has 
been with wolves and Indians as long as you fel- 
lows have. We are all a pretty close shot by sound 
and it is best not to get up any night scares." The 
bullet had grazed the top of Daniel's ear and it was 
the last time such an attempt was made. 



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CHAPTER XV. 
A Trip for Porcupine — Twenty Killed — A Visit 

from a Bear — Potatoes Scarce. 

PORCUPINES were so numerous and so use- 
less to us that we seldom killed one. Go in any di- 
rection and there they were. The good old Indian 
Gosa wanted a lot of them, and he had been so kind 
to us we volunteered to kill them. He called by ap- 
pointment at an early hour in the morning with his 
pony and a sack made of deer skin large enough to 
hold forty or more. There was no trouble in finding 
them for they were quite plenty, and we were not 
over four hours killing twenty or more. 

On our return to camp we came upon a party of 
Indians who were cutting a bee tree. It was a dead 
pine tree about a foot through. It was a mere shell. 
The bees went in about fifteen feet high. In cutting 
they found old candied honey at the butt. It was full 
of solid honey over thirty feet high and did not con- 
tain less than five hundred pounds. . They were sev- 
eral days in carrying it off. They presented us with 
three muhkuks full, which became very acceptable on 
pancakes. This honey had to be strongly barricaded 
with heavy trees to keep the wolves off for they were 
fond of everything sweet. It was with maple sugar 



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66 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

Gosa caught a wolf for us that hung around his wig- 
wam. 

On our return from camp we found our door open 
and tread cautiously to catch a thief. On looking 
in, a large black bear had found the potatoes in the 
hole under our bed and was devouring them a» 
speedily as possible. We closed the door upon him, 
and had him fast. This done we climbed upon the 
top and had a fine view of the black monster. He 
made a desperate leap against the door and then at 
us, and as he did that his hind feet got into live coals 
which made him desperate, and he raved and tore 
around the lodge. It was oar desire to rope him and 
secure him alive, but we found it an impossibility, 
and he was finally dispatched by the Captain with 
two shots in the head. Indian Gosa and 8u-na-gun 
skinned him and took the carcass excepting one 
quarter which we desired for our worthy neighbor 
Chamber's use. 

Every thing in our lodge was now in great confu- 
sion. Our bed, our cooking utensils, were scattered 
all over the lodge. Our plates, were overturned and 
had to be washed up. An hour or more was spent 
in cleaning after bruin before we could get a meal. 

In the mean time we had a call from Mr. Cham- 
bers, who brought us potatoes, having heard by an 
Indian of our loss. But notwithstanding the bear 
had devoured many, still we had plenty and he en- 
joyed a venison supper with us. 



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CHAPTER XVL ^ - 

JA, Visit from Noonday-^'Happy Meeting — Prayers 
^ -^Musicy etc. ' • ^ ■■ ' ^^ ^ 

Noonday and Sagioaw wefe great friends. They 
Kad been together in varibdfe bloody battles, in mas- 
sacteV, and i*aidi^. History has^ never recorded arid 
never will the horrible scenes of cruelty to Captive 
men, women and childt-en, for notie but Indiatis knew 
and they were silent on the subject. Sonde historians 
endeavor to prove Tecumsfeb Was opposed to the tor- 
tured and massacres of prisoners, but he was decep- 
tive, being the fiercest in the slaughter and scalping 
of those in his power, without regard to age or sex* 
This meeting was arranged by Adaniram and we 
were anxious to witness it and the two hunter boya 
were invited to be present and at the feast. Noon- 
day was a convert to the Christian religion under 
the teachings of missionary Slater and he was very 
anxious for the conversion of Saginaw . The 5th of 
March, 1840. Noonday mounted his decorated pony 
for the journey, and he arrived at his wigwam, a 
distance from near Gull prairie of about twenty 
miles. Young and old had assembled to receive the 
warrior chieftain, and when he hove in sight the yell 
of joy and welcome resounded through the forest. 

The tefat of Saginaw f^as elegantly ornamented 



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68 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIAJIK 

with various Indian trinkets. The pipe of Tecuni- 
seh was most conspicuous. As he dismounted, a son 
of §aj;iiiaja^'8 took him by the arm and conducted hito 
to the wigwam where he was received with open 
arms- They continued in each others embrace fof 
five minutes. Then his three wives with his son ad- 
vanced and there was a happy greeting. 

Jfoorjday-knew the writer of this sketch, he having 
attended the meetings of the Slater mission, near the 
borders of Gull prairie, and near the county line be- 
tween Kalamazoo and Barry county, Mich., several 
Sundays and listened to his prayers, and he extended 
both hands to us. He was then introduced to Cap- 
tain Rhodes as one of the brave boys, at whom he 
gazed with his dark and piercing eye, in silence, for 
some time, a gaze which would have made one with 
less courage, falter. This over, there was a general 
greeting. The chief would take the little ones, toss 
them high in the air and catch them as they came 
down. Finally they sit down upon the carpet of 
furs and talked over the times long ago, without any 
apparent reserve for our presence, and in some re- 
spects corroborated portions of the written history of 

the 

]0^ssactie.atj:he.£I^^ 

Tecurnseh , Noonday , Saginaw, Sunagun, Gosa, 
and their party of braves, were starting on a raid 
when news came that a company had left Detroit to 
meet troops on their way from Ohio, at Frenchtown, 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 



69 



on the River Raisiu, and they rushed to join the 
British and Indians who were in possession of that 
town. Tecumseh and Noonday flew to the Wabash 
where they were to be joined by two hundred and 
hurry to Frenchtown, but they did not reach there 
until the conflict was over. C hief Roundhea d and 
Spitlo^ were in command of the Indians there. A 
fierce and bloody battle was fought. The British, un- 
der General Procter, were victorious and the Indians 




MASSACRE AT RIVER RAISIN. 

had many scalps. A portion of the Americans, still 
behind pickets, held out. Proctor assured them if 
they would surrender they should be proteuted, oth- 
erwise he would turn them over for the Indians to 



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^0 six koNTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

burn and scalp. Tljis alarmed General Winchestef 
who «eut word ibr a surrender, which- they did utidei^ 
t,he promise tliey should be protected. The terms of 
surrender iMddeued the Indians for they were suP' 
fering for a slaughter. The British troops started 
for Maiden, accompanied by the Indians, but 
so enraged did Saginaw and other chiefs be- 
come, they, turned 'buck, setfire to thetowri arid drag- 
ged the sick and wounded from their beds, scalped 
them andihrew them into theflames. Here Saginaw 
was scalping a man when a woman rushed in to beg 
for his life ; she was instantly killed and scalped. 
Here he exhibited the sqalp of the woman heretofore 
described. Saginaw was one of the principal leaders 
in this massacre. His voice could be heard, "on to 
the slaughter !" At fort Meigs he also got many 
scalps. 

Capi. Rhodes sat listening to the tales of the two 
chiefs with clenched teeth. The feast was prepared 
and all partook heartily. Jjoonday made a speech 
and said : "There is war talked of now between the 
Americans and the British. Now the Indians would 
draw like a yoke of oxen together with the Ameri- 
cans. They be our friends Me no more go to war. 
My people they all gone. The white man he tell us 
of the happy hunting ground in the distance. Sag- 
inaw he be with me in this world and now he go join 
the good Indian and go with me to the happy hunt- 
ing grounds." 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 71 

Saginaw appeared considerately affected. "He was 
delighted to see liis old friend^^^oonday. Some good 
che-mo-ke-men (white men) and some very bad. 
They drive us from the graves of our fathers They 
load them in wagons and force our mothers, sons and 
daughters from their dear old homes towards the set- 
ting sun, beyond the father of waters which we know 
nothing of. They rob us of our hunting grounds 
and destroy our forest homes* The British no do 
that. Happy Indians in Canada. Go-da-see came 
and see me and he say good hunting ground ^nd 
good white man in Canada. The white vae\\ here 
(pointin£c to us) they be good, they do mwh for In^ 
dian." He then rehearsed to jS^oogd^jL what had 
been done and sat down. 

Capt. Khodes said, "he waft g?ad ta be present here^ 
He liked the good Indian; liked to hear tlie words 
of Noonday, how he would help the Americans in 
another war. Saginaw he go to Canada, he help the 
British — ("No, no 1" said ^Sagioassr — ) he then be a 
bad Indian, hut he say no, then he be good Indian 
and he liked Saginaw and all the good Indians. He 
would be always good to them and he was glad toi 
meet them/* 

Noonday spent the night with Saginajf m 4i4 ^tsc^ 
the two hunters. The evening was >pwt w euAging 
BODgs, dancing and Qtory teUing.. Jiefo(« r^iring 
Noonday offered up a fervent prayer tor Saginaw , his . 
family and his tribe. 



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CHAPTER XVII. 

The War and Scalp Dance in full Indian Costume. 
\i SAGINAW'S wigwam was large. 

'"^^L The lire was in the centre on the 

^ ™^ ground. All slept in a circle on 

furs, covered with blankets, with 
feet towards the fire, and it was very 
comfortable. Sometimes the wolves 
would prowl very near, but the In- 
dians had no fear of them. They 
called them their fellow hunters, yet 
they were very careful not to be far 
out in the woods after dark. 
At early dawn the squaws had prepared venison 
and fish and all partook with a relish, but Noonday 
did not forget his morning devotions and his bless- 
ings before eating. Mr. Slater had instructed hirn 
in this, and he was a most devoted Christian. 

It was our earnest desire to see the war and scalp 
dance. Noonday a t first objected, saying it awaken- 
ed hostile feelings, but he finally consented as Sagi;: 
naw^ desired to please us. In an hour twenty Indi- 
ans were in costume, with bows and arrows attached 
to them, and hatchets in their hands. They were 
painted and ornamented in fine style. Noonday 
gave the order and a circle was formed in a moment. 



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74 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIAJ^S. 

J II the centre was a young squaw beating on an In- 
dian drum, keeping exact time. Each one took the 
same steps and flourished the tomahawk in the same 
manner. The Indian war whoop was most thrilling, 
and even awakened in Noonday fierce, passions. No 
one can witness such a dance without a shudder. 

But if this was terrific the scalp dance was more 
so. They at once formed in a similar manner, with 
two squaw drummers, arid prepared for the dance. 
Most of them had a scalp on the end of a pole, and 
they would flourisii them at the same moment and 
sing most blood curdling songs. In the midst of the 
tumult, old Saginaw seized a pole upon the end t)f 
which was the scalp of the long black haired woman. 
He broke through the lines and was received with 
fearful yells and flourished his scalp far above all 
others. The old chief understood it to perfection. 
At his word all would pause for a moment and by a 
move of his arm all would start. In a moment the 
poles tearing the scalps would change hands, those 
having none receiving them with a yell signifying, 
**I have taken none but will !" It had been many 
years since Noonday had witnessed the dance and he 
seemed to enjoy it exceedingly, occasionally slapping 
his hands and joining in the song. Yet, after all, 
he would break down in sorrow at the past and it 
scarcely seemed possible that such a savage, so cruel 
so fond of torture, could be tamed down to such 
meekness and humility by the teachings of a mission- 
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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 70 

ary. But such is the power of the Christian religion. 

This over, we retired to the wigwam and all were 
seated. Noonday was handed the Tecum seh pipe. 
He at once recognized it and turned it over to view 
i t in every part. 

The writer then asked jj^oonday what he did with 
Tecumseh^s tomahawk which he told him a year ago 
went into his hands atter he fell ? ** Nene son took 
'em beyond the waters to the setting sun." 

Saginaw was asked what became of the war cap 
which he had. He said as before that it was torn to 
pieces in a strife for it" 




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CHAPTER XVIIL 

CrjL Johnson KilleA TecunuiP.h — Noonday saw him dl 

Washington. 

Ill June, 1885, the author famished the followiug 
which was published in th e Centory Afappizin<> ! 

Sib: I imtice iu the January number of your very 
interesting magazine an article by Benjamin C Gris- 
wold relative to thekUling: of Tecumseh by Richard 
M. Johnson. It reminds me of an interview which I 
had with Xoonday, Chief of the Ottowa tribe, about 
the year 1838. This chief was six feet high, broad- 
shouhlered, well proportioned, with broad, high 
cheek-bones, pi^tcirig black eyes, and coarse black 
hair which hung down upon his shoulder^, and he 
possessed wonderful muscular power. He was. con- 
verted to the Christian religion by a Baptist mission- 
ary named Slater; who was stationed about three 
miles north of Gull Prairie, in the county of Kala- 
mazoo, Michigan. Just over the county line and in 
the edge of Barry county, this chief and about one 
hundred and fifty of his tribe were located and in- 
structed in farming. A church was erected which 
answered for a school-house, and here, residing near 
them, I attended their church and listened to the 
teachings of Mr. Slater in the Indian dialect, and 
to the earnest prayers of this brave old chief. To 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 77 

get a history of any Indian who fought on the side 
of the British has ever been a difficult task ; but 
through the Rev. Mr. Slater I succeeded to a limited 
extent, in getting a sketch from this.old chief of the 
battle of the Thames, in which he was engaged. I 
copy from a diary : 

" Aftei rehearsing the speech which Tecumseb 
made to his Warriors previous to the engagement and 
how they all felt, that they fought to defend Tecum- 
seb more than for the British, he was asked : 

" * Were you near Tecumseh when he fell ?' 

" * Yes ; directly on his right.' 

"* Who killed him r 

"* Richard M. Johnson.' I 

" • Give us the circumstances.' 

" * He was on a horse, and the horse fell over a 
log, and T ecumseh , with uplifted tomahawk, was 
about to dispatch him, when he drew a pistol from 
his holster and shot him in the breast, and he fell 
dead on his face. I seized him at once and with the 
assistance o f Saginaw, bore him from the field. 
When he fell the Indians stopped fighting and the 
battle ended. We laid him down on a blanket in a 
wigwam, and we all wept, we loved him so much. I 
took his hat and tomahawk. 

" * Where are they now ?' 

** * I have his tomahawk and Saginaw his hat.' 

"' Could I get them?' 

*• * No; Indian keep them.' 



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78 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

*** How duljrou know it was Johnson who killed Iiira?' 

'* • General Cass t<K)k me to see the Great Father, 
Van Buren, at Washington. I went to the great 
wigwam, and when I went in I saw the same man I 
see in battle, the same man I see kill Tecumseh. I 
had never seen him since, but I knew it was him. I 
lof>k him in the face and said, " Kene kin-a-poo Te- 
cumseh," that is, "You killed Tecums eh.*^ Johnson 
replied that he never knew who it was, but a power- 
ful Indian approached him and he shot him with his 
pistol. "That was Tecumseh. I see you do it." ' " 

Noonday finished his story of Tecumseh by telling 
of his noble traits, the tears meanwhile trickling 
down his cheeks. There is no doubt^ofthe truth of 
his unvarnished tale. D. B. Cook, 

Editor of "The Nijes Mirror." 

Niles, Mich. Dec. 24, 1884. 

Tlte speech of Tecumseh , as remembered by Noon- 
^ay^ above referred to, was delivered in a standing 
position on a log. He said : "Warriors, we are all 
armed for the conflict. The Americans are our ene- 
mies and they seek to deprive us of our loved homes. 
They seek to destroy us. The British are our friends. 
They will ^ive us our homes and make us happy. 
This land belongs to the red warriors and the Amer- 
icans would rob us of this and send us beyond the 
Wabash. Let us defend our homes and the scalps 
we gather in this day we will offer up to the Great 
Spirit. Follow me and victory is burs." 



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A STORY BY SAGINAW — ^Qt^; he got Wounded 

— A Otirious Circumstance. 

The Indians would climb trees in Canada the bet- 
ter to secrete themselves and watch out for American 
scouts, and when within ranjije, shoot them. On one 
occasion he saw a soldier near the shore ot lake Erie, 
skulking along, peering in every direction. He gave 
him a shot and he dodged behind a big rock, he hav- 
ing missed him. Being mostly hid by the body of 
the tree, the scout had no chance for a shot at him, 
even when he was reloading his gun, but he stuck 
his hat up a little a;bove the rock and Sa ginaw put a 
bullet through it and it fell. Bei.igsure he had kill- 
ed him, he hastened down from the tree and rushed 
for his scalp. When near the rock the soldier dart- 
ed out and gave him a shot at close range. The ball 
grazed the top of the hip bone, taking a small piece 
oflFand cutting the flesh. It crippled him consider- 
able but he succeeded in making his escape. A sec- 
ond shot was given before he got out of range which 
grazed his neck, taking off* a piece of the skin. 

It is a curious circumstance that many years after- 
wards the writer should know who this soldier was. 

Uncle Samuel Hall was a native of Milton, Litch- 
field county, Connecticut. He volunteered early in 
the war of 1812, and his regiment was ordered to 
Buffalo. It was a long and dreary march f .'om Al- 
bany. His brother, Daniel Hall, and friends never 
heard from him for near thirty years and supposed 

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80 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

he was killed. At last he was found by his nephew, 
Salmon C. Hall, and by him brought to Gull prairie 
in Kalamazoo county, where he resided for several 
years with him and finally with Reuben Spencer, 
a son-in-law of Salmon C, where he died about 1864. 
He had spent most of his time since the war in Can- 
ada, as a gardener. The writer formed his acquain- 
tance at Gull prairie. He was full of interesting 
war stories and among others he told how he fooled 
an Indian. He said an Indian shot at him from a 
tree. The ball passed between his arm and body 
and struck on a flat rock in the edge of the water, 
leaving a streak of lead on the rockwhich he saw 
many years after the war was over. He dodged be- 
hind a big rock directly in his front, put his hat on 
the point of his bayonet and stuck it a little above 
the top of the rock and the Indian put a bullet 
through it and it fell. **I saw him coming," said 
Uncle Sam, ** with a whoop and a yell, with his 
scalping knife and hatchet. When within two rods 
I dodged out and gave him a shot and he wheeled 
and hobbled off. I could have bayoneted him, but 
supposed other Indians near and under the cover of 
the rock reloaded and had another shot. I know I hit 
h im for he put his hand to his neck and passed out of 
sight. I was satisfied there was one Indian less." 

*' No, Uncle Sam," said I, "that Indian is alive 
• now." I then rehearsed the story of Saginaw, and 
he resolved to see him. 



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CHAFfER XIX. 

VARIOUS INDIAN STORIES. 

STORY BY NOONDAY— Raids into Ohio. 

TEC UMSEH was a great and }>owerful Indian, 
bigger than Saginaw. Alone he would gvi among 
the different tribes and get them to join him. He 
went into Ohio, Kentucky and far south, and learn- 
ed the whole country. Thus becoming familiar, he 
selected ten braves and made a dash into Ohio and 
back in a few days with women and children they 
would capture in fields or wherever they could with 
safety. Children, too young to manage well, had 
their brains dasheil out against trees. The women 
were compelled to astride ponies behind Indians and 
flee with them or be pierced with arrows. The cap- 
tives were hurried to Maiden, in Canada. Here, on 
different raids, they gathered twenty and then hur- 
ried them through Canada down to Jsiagara falls. 
On the trip, <hey were tortured in various wa^s. 
At the falls, some were torn open, scalped and thrown 
over the precipice ; others were only scalped before 
they were thrown over. A British officer, on one 
occasion, interfered and stopped the scalping ann 
torture but permitted them to be thrown into the 
waters. This made them indignant and they resolv- 
ed to abandon them, but the matter was settled with 
tobacco and fire water. 



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82 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

On one of these raids they were pursued by a baud 
of whites. Tliey were on their return with five pri- 
soners, and when near the end of their journey they 
encamped in woods, were resting themselves and 
their ponies, partaking of refreshments, little dream- 
ing of pursuit, when suddenly a large squad of white 
men dashed in upon them about midnight, and by 
the light of their camp fires, killed four out of ten, 
and wounded two, and retook the prisoners, consist- 
ing of one young man, two women and two girls. 
We escaped with our wounded to our ponies a short 
distance oflF. In the darkness they dare not pursue. 
We crept cautiously around, but the fires were put 
out and they had left. We could not carry away 
our. dead. One of the wounded died the next day ; 
the other recovered and here he is. Here he show- 
ed the scar where was wounded by a ball in the calf 
of his right leg, 

" How did you get these prisoners ?" 

"Always on our return. One go to a house to get 
something to eat ; the others hid away. He get all 
he want ; he be friendly ; he see who all there; he 
make a sign, and we all come down upon them and 
we get them and provisions — all the family but one 
and he gone to the war. 



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STORY BY QOS A— Capture of Three American 

Scouts — Escape of One — Revenge. 

Ten of us were on a rampage one day and sneaked 
aroutid and captured three American scouts. One 
of them was a very tall man, taller than Indian had 
ever $een, and we made him run the gauntlet to see 
him fall. A long siring of us formed large circles^ 
three feet apart, would stand and he must run be- 
tween us at the top of his speed. When he got un- 
der headway we would trip him up to see him fall, 
but he must keep going or be pricked with arrows. 
This was our daily fun for some time. 

"We finally got him on a pair of skates on the river 
and he could not stand. He would get up and fall 
in all ways and we enjoyed the fun exceedingly. He 
kept working off from us little by little and finally 
he got up and swifter than the eagle he sped away 
from us. Arrows and bullets followed him but he 
escaped. He was a swift skater and had fooled us 
by his falls." 

" The other two did not fare so well." Here Gosa 
paused. "Well Gosa, 'tis all over now ; we are 
friends and we like to hear your stories." "Me no 
like to tell all," said Gosa. "O, yes, all good Indi- 
ans now. Che-mo-ke-men (white men) like Indian 



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84 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

now," said we. **We held a council after tall man 
escaped. Sag-wa lie be very mad ; he tell how white 
U)an deceive 'em ; he said burn one and cut the oth- 
.er to pieces. Saginaw he say take off skin and burn 
'em. Su-na-gnn he go with Sag-wa. Noonday he 
go with Sag-wa and all the Indians they go with 
him, and so we tied the smallest man's hands to a tree 
up over his head, lifted him up so his feet did not 
hit the ground, put shnrp pitch pine sticks in his 
flesh, set them on Are and danced around bim: '■ Hfe 
made a great fuss, but the more he writhed and 6ri- 
ed the more the Indian yelled and danced.'^ 
*'But where was Tecumseh all this time?'- 
*'He, with two others, had left us to join General 
Brock " **What became of the o^ther prisoner?" 

"The other one, during the night, made believe he 
Was asleep, broke his bands around his feet, leaped 
up, seized Indian gun, killed Sag-wa with the bayd- 
net, and ran to make his escape ; Indian, shot and 
broke his leg a. id he no run. We bound him to a 
log and each Indian he cut out a small piece of him. 
They cut off his nose first, then his ears, took out one 
eye, then the other. He very bad white maq ; Ive 
kill S«g-wa. Each one to cut so he not bleed too 
fast for they gloried in his torture. They corded his 
toes and cut them off. The same with his legs and 
nrms until they reached his body. Finally, Su-na- 
gun he said how he kill Sag-wa and cut his throat. 
Saginaw he got his scalp. 



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six MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 85 

SKETCHES. 
Bagii iajy delighted to talk about the capture of the 
Jitlle girl at Buffalo ; how he protected her ; dressed 
:her in fawn skins, ornamexited her with beads an:^l 
feathers in the most gaudy Indian costumes. She 
soon became accustomed to their i ways, x;ould shoot 
an arrow, row a canoe and catch fish equal to any 6f 
thiem. Occasionally she ^rould speak of her mother 
and old home when she was upbraided. 



Tecumseh , Saginaw, Su-na-gun, Gosa and ten oth- 
ers were in Canada, far away, ^s they sjupposed, from 
.Amierican scouts. They had been encamped there a 
few days to rest and refresh themselves on the banks 
of a lake. , *'They had venison in abundance and were 
;in the midst of a feast wli'en a large equad of soldiers 
rusiied from the bushes upon us, killed four of our 
number, wounded several Qthers, captured our guns, 
'ammunition, and all we bad, including several po- 
nies. We scattered ip all directions. ^ Excepting our 
hatchets,, we were entirely unarmed." **I, with Te- 
cu fflseh/ ' said Sagiua]^;, **broke quickly by them. 
Tecumseh fell over a log and severely injured his 
right shoulder, making it useless for several days.'' 

The British supplied us with new arms. 



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86 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

GOSA'S BEAR STORY. 

One time he pitched his wigwam, with others of 
his tribe, «t the outlet of Thornapple lake, in Barry 
county. It was in 1837, when there was but one log 
house in Hastings, and that a hotel, where the author 
remained over night with his companion named 
Whitoomb. There was splendid hunting in this vi- 
cinity. On one of Gosa's excursions, a half wolf dog 
which he owned, was taught to follow cautiously in 
his footsteps, never being allowed to leave his 
plnce until some game was badly wounded ; then 
wait a few minutes for game to bleed, he was placed 
upon the tnick and away he sped. The dog was very 
fleet and would soon overtake a deer that is weak 
from th6 loss of blood, and would either kill or worry 
them until he came up. 

On one of his hunting trips his dog made a sud- 
den leap from him and rushed with the utmost speed 
out of sight. It was not long before he discovered the 
cause, which was the fi esh track of a large black 
bear. His bark was soon heard in the distance and 
hastening to him, bruin was found resting quietly in 
the crotch of a tree, watching the movements of the 
dog. Gosa did not take his usual precaution to 
climb a small tree, but stood on the ground, gave 
him a shot which brought him down. He rushed to 
him with his hunting knife to cut his throat and was 
immediately knocked down by the bear's fore-arm ; 
before he could recover himself the bear was upon 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 87 

liim, and fastening his teeth in his left arm, sur- 
rounded his body, and, lifting his hind feet up, tore 
his buckskin breeches and lacerated his limbs in £^ 
most fearful manner. While he was doing this, Gosa 
was using his knife with deadly effect, piercing the 
heart, which caused a speedy death on his person, 
and he was completely drenched in the bear's blood. 
**But where was the dog all this time ?" 
While the struggle was going on the bear paid no 
attention to the dog that was snapping and biting 
him on all sides. Gosa, who was bleeding from his 
wounds, found it quite difficult to turn the bear off 
and stand upon his feet; he did so, however, and, 
leaving his rifle, started for his wigwam, giving, with 
all his strength, the Indian cry of distress. It whs 
about one mile distant and he had not proceeded 
more than halfway before he was compelled to rest 
from the loss of blood. Luckily an Indian who was 
hunting, heard his cry and hastening to him found 
he was in an exhausted condition. Leaving there 
and going for help, sending forth the cry of distress, 
he was soon met by six Indians who carried him 
speedily in and made a strong decoction of hemlock 
bark to bathe his wounds and stop the bleeding. 
His limbs were bound with such bandages as they 
had and it was three months before he enjoyed an- 
other hunt He exhibited his scars and pointed to 
the skull of the bear. 



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88 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

B YjAGINAW. 
When the moon was full and the leaves had fallen, 
I went with Teoumseh, Noonday Sag-wa, Gosa, and 
a number of others, on ponies among the Indians of 
Ohio and Kentucky. We held large meetings and 
many Indians agreed to appear at Maiden and join 
the British. But few of them did as they agreed for 
General Harrison sent Indians on our trail who told 
them we be their enemies and we wanted them kill- 
ed. When the moon was old we left for Maiden; 
It was our aim to capture all the prisoners we could 
and take them to Maiden alive or their scalps, for 
either of which we got a reward. We were on the 
war path on our return. Sometimes we found wo- 
men and children husking corn in the fields ; on see- 
ing us approach they would flee- to their log huts 
and barricade the doors and windows, and so strong 
were they made it was difficult to batter them down 
with hatchets. Chimneys were made with sticks on 
the outside. On one occasion where a family fled to 
the house a Delaware Indian, who had joined us, 
climbed up on the outside to go down the chimney; 
When part way down, a quantit}' of sulphur was 
thrown upon the fire and he was smothered and fell 
down Ufon the fire wheie he was dispa^tched with an 
axe. We then tore the chimney down to the ground, 
set fire to the house and captured all the inmates, 
two women, two girls, a boy and a bsiby. The little 
one was killed and left to the flames. We lashed 



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SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 89 

our captives to our ponies and galloped off. When 
passing through a thicket we were fired upon by a 
number of men in ambush. Three of our ponies 
were killed and three of our company. J was wound- 
ed here (showing his arm.) We lost all our captives 
but a girl, but we were pursued so furiously by a few 
Kentuckians, who were mounted, that we took her 
scalp and dropped her. We then scattered, going in 
various directions, rendering pursuit impossible. 
It was some days before we all met at Maiden. Go- 
sa was wounded in his left arm. A ball passed 
through the cap of Tecumseh. grazing the top of his 
head and he laughed abouc it. It was evident we 
had been watched and they had prepared for our re- 
turn and we fared badly. 

Tecumseh was the last to come in and we all fear- 
ed he was killed, but he went to the Wabash and 
brought in ten new recruits and two prisoners. 
When he made his appearance there was great re- 
joicing and General Brock ordered a salute. 



BY SAGINAW— ffuir 8 Surrender. 
If we captured Detroit we were to have many 
scalps and much burning and plunder. Tecumseh 
he cross over with his warriors, Gen. Brock he fol- 
low and then we march toward the town. We ex- 



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90 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

pected big fight and were greatly surprised at tlie 
surrender of Gen. Hull at the first fire. When the 
man came out with the white flag, Indian yell big. 
We all thought Tecunntseh knew beforehand about 
the surrender for he ordered the prisoners should be 
protected and he see the order enforced. 

"Where was Tecumseh at the battle ot Tip peca- 
J?Qi,?" It w^s intended there should be no battle 
there until after his return with his warriors, Paw- 
nees and others from the south. He had gathered 
over one hundred and fifty braves and was on his 
return when the battle was fought. Tecumseh was 
big with rage. He charged the prophet was the 
cause of the battle and he said "kill him !" and ma- 
ny said "kill him !" Tecumseh he be very mad ; he 
stamp his feet ; his braves, they pull out his hair 
and Wanted his scalp, but Tecumseh he hear him 
cry for mercy, how he was deceived and say "let him 
go to his own wigwam, he be bad Indian." 



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CHAPTER XX. 

Final Departure — A Farewell Feast. 
On the 20th of April, 1840 Capt. Rhodes and the 
writer called on Saginaw and informed him we should 
leave the forest April 28, and we requested him and 
his family to be present on the 2dth at a feast ; that 
he also inyite twenty others of his choice^ including 
Gosa and Noonday to be present. He expressed 
^reat sorrow at this announcement, but said he would 
be with ud and bring others on that day. Mr. and 
Mrs. Chambers were also invited. Tw(^ deer Were 
prepared for the occasion. Mrs. Chanibers loaned 
us a large kettle, all her dishes, baked our bread, 
while Mr, Chambers furnished and pounded 3ur com, 
both doing all in their power to assist us. The time 
came and so did the company on ponite, dressed in 
the most gorgeous Indian costumes they possesseii* 
Several squaws brought in muhkuks bear skulls, 
wooden spoons and forks. jToonday was ill and 
could not leave the Slater mission to go so far. Eve- 
rj^ thing was ready, consisting of roasted venison, 
corned bear, venison soup with boiled corn and po- 
tatoes. At one o'clock all sat down on poles, sup- 
ported by shingle blocks, and covered with deer and 
wolf skins, the chief at the head on bear skins. The 
table was of boards furnished by Mr. Chambers. 
There was fun at this table. Some would eat as 



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92 SIX MONTHS WITH THE INDIANS. 

much as possible and stop and sing an Indian song 
ard at times all jump up, swing their arms and join 
in the chorus. They had been told to enjoy them- 
selves in their own way. Adoniram, who had lived 
with white men, was full of jokes and fun which 
Sajjinaw and his wives did not seem to enjoy, but 
his son did exceedingly. 

This over, Adaniram made a few brief remarks 
in the Indian tongue, telling them of the great ben- 
fits an English education had been to him, advising 
them to send their children to English schools; be 
closed by many thanks to the hunter' boys whom he 
claimed had done them good. 

Saginaw said : "He no like white man on Indian 
luinting ground, at first. They had been driven 
every where. He had no home no more for him or 
his. He thought bad of us when we came with our 
rifles for to stay ; but he was much glad now we did 
stay. They did him good. They can sleep in his 
wigwam all the time. They go and we no more see 
'em." The old chief embraced both.- His wives, 
Adoniram, Gosa and all shook our hands, bid us 
good by, mounted their ponies and left ne$r sunset, 
making the wilderness rins: with song as they went. 

At the appointed time, Mr. Chambers cx)nvGyed us 
to Gull prairie, and thus ended our forest life. Nine 
wolves, two bear, (number of deer not kept,) and va- 
rious kinds of other animals were captured. More 
precious than all was the restoration to health. 



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A Visit to the Old Hunting ' Groumth'-r-Intervievr 
with Henry Gilbert^ the Founder 6f the Kalama- 
zoo Gazette — A Thriving Village— -Sketch of the 
Family of the First Settler^ Nelson Chambers — The 
Splendid Artesian* Wells — The Present Business 
Meny etc. 

Near half a century had passed since companion 
Rhodes andahe writer left the forest, and before clos- 
ing this little historical .work it seemed necessij.ry 
to visit the grounds where the scenes took place, and 
as its first chapter announced our reception by Nel-^ 
son Chambers, the first and only white settler in that 
part of the county of Allegan, the author felt aiyx- 
ious to know whether Mr. and Mrs. C. were still 
there and their destiny and that' of his family. 

March 14, 1889, found us on the Central road 
bound for Kalamazoo. On landing there our first 
business was to seek out the first editor and. founder 
of the Kalamazoo Gazette, Henry Gilbert, who gave 
us our first position in western Michigan on a news- 
paper, in 1837. We were not long in reaching his 
beautiful dwelling and the door bell called a matron- 
ly appearing lady, who informed us Mr. G. would be 
in soon and invited us to a seat where we pleasantly 



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94 VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 

8|>ent a few minutes, when Mr. Gilbert appeared. 
Grai^ping him by the hand, — "Do you recognize aie ?" 
Gazing with earnestness, he could not. He was re- 
minded of many transaetionn in by-gone days, of his 
old office and bookstore, of the departure of two 
young men for the wilderness, and he well remem- 
bered all. Perhaps we did not have a jovial time in 
reheai'sing the scenes of the past. In the mean time 
his estimable wife prepared a sumptuous dinner. 
Mr. Gilbert, although near 80, is full of life and vig- 
or and highly esteemed, as he ever was, for his in- 
tegrity and honor. We have never seen a neater or 
more delightful dwelling than his, patterned after 
one he saw in California. 

Taking our departure, we boarded a car on the G. 
K. and I. Railroad, we proceeded twenty-eight miles, 
to what is now known as the village of Wayland, in 
the township of Wayland, Allegan county, where we 
arrived at 3.-09 p. m. The first to encounter is huge 
piles of lumber, turned out from a saw mill near by, 
and, of course, the omnibus men, seeking to rake in 
the dimes. A ride of half a mile brought us to the 
Wayland Hotel, erected many years ago by Nelson 
Chambers, the first settler, who, while the piank road 
was in existence, made a handsome fortune keeping 
travelers who would invariably stop with him on 
their way to Grand Rapids. The railroad materially 
interfered with his business. This hotel is now kept 
by his son, George Bennett Chambers, and better 



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TISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 95 

and more wholesome fare cannot be had at any hotel 
in a country town. Mr. C. was at his farm of 320 
acres, about three miles out. (The beaver we sought 
were on this farm.) 

Could it be possible this was the same ground 
where once the wild savages roamed, the wolves made 
their dens, and wild game of every variety which ex- 
isted in Michigan, was numerous and nearly unmo- 
lested ? Where, oh where stood the original log 
cabin of the first pioheer ? And where the old log 
hut of the hunter boys, and the spring of pure wa- 
ter. We were directed to a Mrs. Andrew Gleason, 
daughter of Nelson Chambers, whose handsome 
dwelling was a few rods distant. Making known to 
her our errand, Mrs. G. seeing her son ride into the 
yaad in a buggy, took us at once to the high grounds, 
about eighty rods distant, where her father erected 
the first log house, and then to the grounds where 
stood our cabin. Mr. Chambers returned toward 
evening. As did the father, near fifty years before, 
so did the son, give us a hearty welcome, and histo- 
ry thus repeated itself. The night was passed in 
sleep, no owls or panthei' scream disturbed our quiet 
slumbers. 

The morning dawned most beautiful. Mr. Cham- 
bers spent the entire day with his horse and buggy 
reviewing the grounds. We first visited his sister, 
about two miles distant, who was the only one living 
who was there in 1839. She was then about nine 
years old, and well did she remember the two young 



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9Q VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 

hunters, Cook & Rhodes. Manv scenes were re- 
hearsed and the interview with her was exceedingly 
interesting to the writer. Here we obtained a brief 
sketch of the Chambers family. 

Nelson Chambers was a native of Litchfield, Conn., 
and was born Sept. 5, 1806. He was married to 
Miss Emily J. Shephard, of Vermont, Oct. 16, 1829. 
He moved to Ypsilanti where he carried on for some 
time the grocery business with success. He under- 
signed for a drover for a large amount and was finan- 
cially wrecked, disposing even of his bedding to pay 
the debt. In trading his home there he took a lot of 
wild land in Allegan county which he knew nothing 
about, never having seen it. It is now the northeast 
corner of the village. He sought it out. A guide 
from Yankee Springs accompanied and assisted him 
in erecting the log house. It was covered with 
boards. Here he moved in April, 1839, with his 
family, consisting of his wife, one son, named Mar- 
shal, and two daughters named Amanda J. and Em- 
ily, As soon as bark began to peel in the spring 
the board roof came off and was used for a floor 
and elm bark took its place. He afterwards had 
three more children : Currance Ann, Cornelia Al- 
ice and George Bennett. Mai-shal died April 15, 
1858. Amanda married Wm. Heydenbleck, and 
lives on a farm in Layton, two miles from the hotel, 
and has five children. Emily died in 1883. Cur- 
rance Ann married Andrew Gleason, in the village,. 



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97 VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 

and has one son. Cornelia Alice married G. Cliase 
Goodwin and resides at Grand Rapids. George B. 
married Emily J. Hayward and he now keeps the 
Wayland Hotel. Nelson, the father, lost his wife, 
Oct. 12, 1865, aged 58 years, and he died October 8, 
1877> aged 70 years and 8 days. 

Leaving here, we revisited the old spring and 
drank from the same fountain. Thej.se waters have 
been analyzed and ar3 pronounced very superior 
mineral springs, and we are informed people visit 
them from distant points and take home the water. 
(Perhaps it was these springs which caused our spee- 
dy recovery.) They are not improved as they should 
be. Eighty rods from here was the black ash swamp 
where the wolves were trapped and where the grape 
vines hung. The railroad occupies the grounds in 
the swamp where our wolf traps were set and a few 
tamaracks and stumps still remain vouching for our 
accurate description giveii in the first chapters, ex- 
cepting distances were a little too far. There, too, is 
the same river winding its way, not through a forest 
but through fruitful fields. There, on its banks, is 
the very spot where two wolves, in pursuit of a buuk, 
crossed the stream, leaped upon the bank, and fell 
dead. Away to the east still stands the old maple 
trees where the wigwams of the Indians were, and 
still further up the river old Saginaw had his camp 

There was one yet to visit, a descendant of the 
missionary, Mr. Selkirk, and thither we bent our 



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98 VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 

course. It was three miles distant and we urill not 
complain, for Mr. Chambers did not, of the mud and 
water his fine liorse passed through. Arriving at 
his house, there appeared before us a man of small 
stature who was born and brought up among the In- 
dians and kiiew well their language and character. 
He was about fifty years old. He claimed that Sag^ 
inaw was an Ottowa chief Here he was certainly 
mistaken for Noonday was the head chief of the Ot- 
towa tribe. He informed us that the old chief, 8agr 
inaw, was finally kil jed by his son-in-law, Sho-ah- 
mish, by drawing a fire brand from the fire and strik- 
ing him on the side of his head. There was a knot 
on the brand which crushed through his temple and 
caused instant death. Adoniram Judson, the int.er- 
preter, was manied and had one son. One day he 
was out in the woods and near his home ; on his at- 
tempting to get home an ulcer burst inside of him 
and he could go no further. His calling for help 
could not be heard. He crawled around to gather 
sticks for a fire, but could not do it. He was found 
frozen to death on a log. He was a great loss to 
both whites and Indians. Adaniram's brother was 
Pe-make-wan. Gosa had a wife named Quimee. 
He was uncle to Lydia who lived with him and was 
so much abused. Chin-a-bee-nell was a son of Sagi- 
jiaw^ White Pigeon was big and fat. Tuck-a-main 
was a great leaner. Missionary Selkirk died in 1877 
at the age of 87 years and was buried on the banks 

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VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GKOUNDS. 99 

of the beautiful lake near his residence. He was a 
man beloved by all. His whole life was devoted to 
ameliorating the condition of the human family and 
especially the Indian race. 

Returning on a different road, we passed through 
a forest of 160 acres. Here the woodmen were en- 
gaged with axes and saws, clearing up the trees as of 
old. Nearing the village, we |)aused at the cemetery 
where many dead repose ; close to the entrance are 
the graves of Mr. and Mrs. Chambers, the place being 
marked by elegant monuments. Fond recollections 
seemed to cluster around these monuments, recollec- 
tions of the great hearts that seemed first to pene- 
trate the wilderness and welcome all. To look back 
through the vista of time, the time when the wild 
beasts bounded here unharmed, and gaze upon the 
beautiful residences, the substantial business buiUl- 
ings, it seemed as if we were living in another world. 
There are now about seven hundred people in the 
village. The large union school house is a fins or- 
nament ; therp are 158 pupils. 

R G. Smith, W. L. Heazitt and H. G. Spauld- 
ing keep dry goods and groceries. 

The grocery keepers nre D. T. Hersey, D. W. C. 
Shattuck and C. J. Branch. 

Two hardware stores, E. 8. Fitch and F. H. Beach. 
* One wagon and blacksmith shop, R. H. Olive. 

Three drug stores, John Chapel & Son, John 
Graves, (postmaster,) and H. E. Hawkins. 






1(X) VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 

An exchange bank Pickett, & Turner. 

Two blacksmith shops, Wm. Stockdale and H. T. 
Striughani. 

Boot and shoe store, S. S. Miles. 

Meat market, Wharton & Yeakey. 

Harness shop, P. H. & W. H. Schuch. 

Two hotels, Geo. B. Chambers and S. Hollister. 

Flouring mill, L. F. Wallbrecht. 

Foundry, W. V. Hoyt. 

Printing office, Wayland Globe, Geo. Mosher. 

Livery stable and buss line, H. H. Kelley. 

Buss line, S. Huntley. 

Undertaker, Geo. H. Henika. 

Barber shop, Clias. Ward. 

Four physicians, J. Graves, J. Turner, R. H. Ki- 
no and C. W. Andrews. 

A lawyer, John Turner. 

Two milliners, Mrs.Cynthia Slade,Mrs.M.E. Snell. 

One feed and one flouring mill, and two sash 
mills, Clark & Hicks and Arthur Clark. 

A Methodist and Disciple church. 

Cheese factory, Isaac B Smith. 

Cider, sorgum and paint mill, Barnes & Sons. 

Brick and stone mason, A. Gleason. 

Jeweler, Fiank Covell. 

Photograph gallery, S. Filley. 

Masonic lodge, 100 members. Odd Fellows lodge. 

The village board consists of E. S. Fitch, Presi- 



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VISIT TO THE OLD HUNTING GROUNDS. 101 

dent, Geo. Mosher, Recorder, Peter Ross, Marshal, 
and six Aldermen. 

Hard maple trees on both sides of all the streets, 
afford beautiful shade in the summer. Artesian 
wells are found in all parts of the village by sinking 
a pipe fr«m 25 to 60 feet, throwing the crystal wa- 
ters from ten to twenty feet high. All the inhabi- 
tants are getting these wells. 

Such is the onward march of civilization. The 
poor, friendless Indians, having been robbed of their 
birthright, driven from their homes and the graves 
of their fathers, wronged and defrauded in every pos- 
sible way by the white man, who can deny but 
there is some excuse for their cruelty to captives ? 
Tecuraseh was right when he delivered his speech to 
his warriors just previous to the battle of the Thames. 
He foresaw their destiny and his predictions have 
been fulfilled. An inferior race must yield to a su- 
perior, who will have no respect for rights. Anoth- 
er century will wipe out every vestige of the Indian 
race on the American continent and they will only 
be known in historv. 



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